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      Psychological resilience, coping behaviours and social support among health care workers during the COVID‐19 pandemic: A systematic review of quantitative studies

      , PhD, CHSE, CNE 1 ,
      Journal of Nursing Management
      John Wiley and Sons Inc.
      coping, COVID‐19, health care workers, mental health, psychological resilience, social support

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          To appraise and synthesize studies examining resilience, coping behaviours and social support among health care workers during the coronavirus pandemic.


          A wide range of evidence has shown that health care workers, currently on the frontlines in the fight against COVID‐19, are not spared from the psychological and mental health‐related consequences of the pandemic. Studies synthesizing the role of coping behaviours, resilience and social support in safeguarding the mental health of health care workers during the pandemic are largely unknown.


          This is a systematic review with a narrative synthesis. A total of 31 articles were included in the review.

          Key Issues

          Health care workers utilized both problem‐centred and emotion‐centred coping to manage the stress associated with the coronavirus pandemic. Coping behaviours, resilience and social support were associated with positive mental and psychological health outcomes.


          Substantial evidence supports the effectiveness of coping behaviours, resilience and social support to preserve psychological and mental health among health care workers during the COVID‐19 pandemic.

          Implications for Nursing Management

          In order to safeguard the mental health of health care workers during the pandemic, hospital and nursing administrators should implement proactive measures to sustain resilience in HCWs, build coping skills and implement creative ways to foster social support in health care workers through theory‐based interventions, supportive leadership and fostering a resilient work environment.

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          Most cited references53

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          Understanding and Addressing Sources of Anxiety Among Health Care Professionals During the COVID-19 Pandemic

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            Is Open Access

            The Effects of Social Support on Sleep Quality of Medical Staff Treating Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in China

            Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan City, China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a multivariate analysis method to determine the structural relationship between measured variables. This observational study aimed to use SEM to determine the effects of social support on sleep quality and function of medical staff who treated patients with COVID-19 in January and February 2020 in Wuhan, China. Material/Methods A one-month cross-sectional observational study included 180 medical staff who treated patients with COVID-19 infection. Levels of anxiety, self-efficacy, stress, sleep quality, and social support were measured using the and the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction (SASR) questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Social Support Rate Scale (SSRS), respectively. Pearson’s correlation analysis and SEM identified the interactions between these factors. Results Levels of social support for medical staff were significantly associated with self-efficacy and sleep quality and negatively associated with the degree of anxiety and stress. Levels of anxiety were significantly associated with the levels of stress, which negatively impacted self-efficacy and sleep quality. Anxiety, stress, and self-efficacy were mediating variables associated with social support and sleep quality. Conclusions SEM showed that medical staff in China who were treating patients with COVID-19 infection during January and February 2020 had levels of anxiety, stress, and self-efficacy that were dependent on sleep quality and social support.
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              Psychological distress, coping behaviors, and preferences for support among New York healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic

              Objective The mental health toll of COVID-19 on healthcare workers (HCW) is not yet fully described. We characterized distress, coping, and preferences for support among NYC HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This was a cross-sectional web survey of physicians, advanced practice providers, residents/fellows, and nurses, conducted during a peak of inpatient admissions for COVID-19 in NYC (April 9th–April 24th 2020) at a large medical center in NYC (n = 657). Results Positive screens for psychological symptoms were common; 57% for acute stress, 48% for depressive, and 33% for anxiety symptoms. For each, a higher percent of nurses/advanced practice providers screened positive vs. attending physicians, though housestaff's rates for acute stress and depression did not differ from either. Sixty-one percent of participants reported increased sense of meaning/purpose since the COVID-19 outbreak. Physical activity/exercise was the most common coping behavior (59%), and access to an individual therapist with online self-guided counseling (33%) garnered the most interest. Conclusions NYC HCWs, especially nurses and advanced practice providers, are experiencing COVID-19-related psychological distress. Participants reported using empirically-supported coping behaviors, and endorsed indicators of resilience, but they also reported interest in additional wellness resources. Programs developed to mitigate stress among HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic should integrate HCW preferences.

                Author and article information

                J Nurs Manag
                J Nurs Manag
                Journal of Nursing Management
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                28 April 2021
                : 10.1111/jonm.13336
                [ 1 ] Sultan Qaboos University Muscat Oman
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Leodoro J. Labrague, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman.

                Email: Leo7_ci@ 123456yahoo.com

                Author information
                © 2021 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This article is being made freely available through PubMed Central as part of the COVID-19 public health emergency response. It can be used for unrestricted research re-use and analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source, for the duration of the public health emergency.

                : 18 March 2021
                : 18 November 2020
                : 06 April 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Pages: 13, Words: 18085
                Review Article
                Review Articles
                Custom metadata
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.0.4 mode:remove_FC converted:02.07.2021

                coping,covid‐19,health care workers,mental health,psychological resilience,social support


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