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      Epidemiology of Histologically Proven Glomerulonephritis in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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          Abstract

          Background and aim

          Glomerulonephritis (GN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Africa. Data on epidemiology and outcomes of glomerular diseases from Africa is still limited. We conducted a systematic review on the epidemiology of histologically proven glomerular diseases in Africa between 1980 and 2014.

          Materials and methods

          We searched literature using PubMed, AfricaWide, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature on EBSCO Host, Scopus, African Journals online databases, and the African Index Medicus, for relevant studies. The review was conducted using standard methods and frameworks using only biopsy-confirmed data.

          Results

          Twenty four (24) studies comprising 12,093 reported biopsies from 13 countries were included in this analysis. The median number of biopsies per study was 127.0 (50–4436), most of the studies (70.0%) originated from North Africa and the number of performed kidney biopsies varied from 5.2 to 617 biopsies/year. Nephrotic syndrome was the commonest indication of renal biopsy. The frequency of reported primary pathologic patterns included, minimal change disease (MCD); 16.5% (95%CI: 11.2–22.6), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS); 15.9% (11.3–21.1), mesangiocapillary GN (MCGN); 11.8% (9.2–14.6), crescentic GN; 2.0% (0.9–3.5) and IgA nephropathy 2.8% (1.3–4.9). Glomerular diseases related to hepatitis B and systemic lupus erythematosus had the highest prevalence among assessed secondary diseases: 8.4% (2.0–18.4) and 7.7% (4.5–11.7) respectively. There was no evidence of publication bias and regional differences were seen mostly for secondary GNs.

          Conclusions

          Glomerular diseases remain poorly characterized in sub-Saharan Africa due to declining renal biopsy rates and consequent paucity of data on pathologic patterns of key renal diseases. Development of renal biopsy registries in Africa is likely to enable adequate characterization of the prevalence and patterns of glomerular diseases; this could have a positive impact on chronic kidney disease evaluation and treatment in the African continent since most glomerulopathies are amenable to treatment.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Renal disease in HIV-seropositive patients in Nigeria: an assessment of prevalence, clinical features and risk factors.

          In order to determine the pattern of renal disease and risk factors for renal disease in HIV-infected Nigerians, we studied 400 consecutive HIV/AIDS patients (210 males, 190 females) aged between 18 and 65 years (mean +/- SD; 34.6 +/- 9.4 years), and examined renal disease factors attributable to the infection. Diagnosis of renal disease was based on the consistent presence of at least 1+ albuminuria and/or elevated serum creatinine (>132 micromol/l) as well as the absence of other identifiable causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We determined socio-demography and clinical findings, as well as full laboratory work-ups including haemogram, CD4+ cell count, serum electrolytes, urea, creatinine, protein, cholesterol and urine analysis. Renal biopsies were taken in 10 patients who had moderate to massive proteinuria and had consented to the procedure. Finally, we compared HIV/AIDS cases with and without renal disease to determine the risk factors for nephropathy. We observed a high prevalence of renal disease (proteinuria and/or elevated serum creatinine), which was present in 152 (38%) of the patients. This subgroup included 74 males and 78 females with a M:F ratio of 1:1. The mean age (+/-SD) was 35.8 (+/-10.01) years. Systolic and/or diastolic hypertension was seen in 13.2% of these patients while the mean (+/- SD) body mass index (BMI) and packed cell volume (PCV) were 18.5 (+/-3.1) kg/m(2) and 25.26 (+/-6.81)%, respectively. The mean (+/-SD) CD4+ count was 246.49 (+/-192.8) cells/microl, while the mean (+/-SD) serum creatinine and 24-h urine protein excretion rates were 210.11 (+/-337.8) micromol/l and 2.57 (+/- 2.42) g/day, respectively. In subjects with and without nephropathy, there were significant differences in age, BMI, serum cholesterol, serum albumin and CD4+ counts, suggesting that these parameters may be risk factors for nephropathy. Histology revealed mainly focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) with glomerular collapse. We conclude that the prevalence of proteinuria in HIV-seropositive patients is high in Nigeria. Such subjects show an equal male:female distribution, and glomerular histology revealed that a majority of biopsied patients had the collapsing FSGS variant. The risk factors for renal disease included severity of the HIV infection (inferred from the generally low CD4+ count), anaemia, malnutrition and increasing age.
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            Patterns of renal disease in Cape Town South Africa: a 10-year review of a single-centre renal biopsy database.

            The patterns of glomerular diseases have been widely reported from different regional and national biopsy registries worldwide. However, there are scant studies on the epidemiology of biopsy-proven renal disease, particularly glomerular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. We retrospectively analysed the reports of 1284 native renal biopsies, reviewed by the same pathologist and performed at the Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009. The mean age of all the patients biopsied was 36.8 ± 14.0 years with 61.8% of the patients being under 40 years of age. There was a preponderance of females (54.8%). There were more coloured patients (53.7%) than blacks (42.2%) or whites (3.9%). The frequencies of clinical indications for a renal biopsy were nephrotic range proteinuria (52.5%), acute renal failure (21.3%), asymptomatic urinary abnormalities (13.6%), chronic renal failure (6.4%), acute nephritic syndrome (5.8%) and haematuria (0.3%). The frequencies of the primary glomerulonephritis (GN) include mesangiocapillary GN (20.4%), mesangial proliferative GN (19.2%), membranous GN (18.5%), crescentic and necrotizing GN (11.4%), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (10.5%), post-infectious GN (8.2%), minimal change disease (6.0%) and IgA nephropathy (5.8%). Lupus nephritis was the most frequent secondary glomerular disease (39.0%) and was also the most frequent cause of the nephrotic range proteinuria (17.2%). HIV-associated nephropathy increased from 6.6% in 2000 to 25.7% in 2009 (P < 0.0001). Our data are an important contribution to the epidemiology of renal disease in Africa. We hope that this will form the basis for developing a renal biopsy registry in South Africa and across the continent.
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              Malaria-induced renal damage: facts and myths.

               J H Ehrich,  F Eke (2007)
              Malaria infections repeatedly have been reported to induce nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure. Questions have been raised whether the association of a nephrotic syndrome with quartan malaria was only coincidental, and whether the acute renal failure was a specific or unspecific consequence of Plasmodium falciparum infection. This review attempts to answer questions about "chronic quartan malaria nephropathy" and "acute falciparum malaria nephropathy". The literature review was performed on all publications on kidney involvement in human and experimental malarial infections accessible in PubMed or available at the library of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The association of a nephrotic syndrome with quartan malaria was mostly described before 1975 in children and rarely in adult patients living in areas endemic for Plasmodium malariae. The pooled data on malaria-induced acute renal failure included children and adults acquiring falciparum malaria in endemic areas either as natives or as travellers from non-tropical countries. Non-immunes (not living in endemic areas) had a higher risk of developing acute renal failure than semi-immunes (living in endemic areas). Children with cerebral malaria had a higher rate and more severe course of acute renal failure than children with mild malaria. Today, there is no evidence of a dominant role of steroid-resistant and chronic "malarial glomerulopathies" in children with a nephrotic syndrome in Africa. Acute renal failure was a frequent and serious complication of falciparum malaria in non-immune adults. However, recently it has been reported more often in semi-immune African children with associated morbidity and mortality.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                24 March 2016
                2016
                : 11
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]E13 Renal Unit, Groote Schuur Hospital and Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Cape, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
                [3 ]Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité Mixte de Recherche Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris, France; and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, Tenon Hospital, Paris, France
                [4 ]Non-Communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council & University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
                Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research and Azienda Ospedaliera Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo, ITALY
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: IGO OIA AKB PR CRS APK. Performed the experiments: IGO OIA APK. Analyzed the data: IGO OIA AKB PR CRS APK. Wrote the paper: IGO OIA AKB PR CRS APK.

                Article
                PONE-D-15-48841
                10.1371/journal.pone.0152203
                4806979
                27011216
                © 2016 Okpechi et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Pages: 15
                Product
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
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                Surgical and Invasive Medical Procedures
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