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      Changes in Volatile and Non-Volatile Flavor Chemicals of “Valencia” Orange Juice over the Harvest Seasons

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          Abstract

          Florida “Valencia” oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major flavor chemicals, volatile (aroma), non-volatile (taste) and mouth feel attributes, in the two harvest seasons (March to June in 2007 and February to May in 2012). Bitter limonoid compounds, limonin and nomilin, decreased gradually. Out of a total of 94 volatiles, 32 increased, 47 peaked mid to late season, and 15 decreased. Juice insoluble solids and pectin content increased over the season; however, pectin methylesterase activity remained unchanged. Fruit harvested in the earlier months had lower flavor quality. Juice from later harvests had a higher sugar/acid ratio with less bitterness, while, many important aroma compounds occurred at the highest concentrations in the middle to late season, but occurred at lower concentrations at the end of the season. The results provide information to the orange juice processing industry for selection of optimal harvest time and for setting of precise blending strategy.

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          Most cited references 71

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          Current epidemiological understanding of citrus Huanglongbing .

          Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most destructive citrus pathosystem worldwide. Previously known primarily from Asia and Africa, it was introduced into the Western Hemisphere in 2004. All infected commercial citrus industries continue to decline owing to inadequate current control methods. HLB increase and regional spatial spread, related to vector populations, are rapid compared with other arboreal pathosystems. Disease dynamics result from multiple simultaneous spatial processes, suggesting that psyllid vector transmission is a continuum from local area to very long distance. Evolutionarily, HLB appears to have originated as an insect endosymbiont that has moved into plants. Lack of exposure of citrus to the pathogen prior to approximately 100 years ago did not provide sufficient time for development of resistance. A prolonged incubation period and regional dispersal make eradication nonviable. Multiple asymptomatic infections per symptomatic tree, incomplete systemic distribution within trees, and prolonged incubation period make detection difficult and greatly complicate disease control.
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            Elucidation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria and plastids. A metabolic milestone achieved through genomics.

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              Green leaf volatiles: hydroperoxide lyase pathway of oxylipin metabolism.

               Kenji Matsui (2006)
              Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are C(6) aldehydes, alcohols, and their esters formed through the hydroperoxide lyase pathway of oxylipin metabolism. Plants start to form GLVs after disruption of their tissues and after suffering biotic or abiotic stresses. GLV formation is thought to be regulated at the step of lipid-hydrolysis, which provides free fatty acids to the pathway. Recently, studies dissecting the physiological significance of GLVs in plants have emerged, and it has been postulated that GLVs are important molecules both for signaling within and between plants and for allowing plants and other organisms surrounding them to recognize or compete with each other.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Foods
                Foods
                foods
                Foods
                MDPI
                2304-8158
                04 January 2016
                March 2016
                : 5
                : 1
                Affiliations
                USDA, ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 S. Rock Rd, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA; liz.baldwin@ 123456ars.usda.gov (E.A.B.); greg.mccollum@ 123456ars.usda.gov (G.M.); anne.plotto@ 123456ars.usda.gov (A.P.); john.manthey@ 123456ars.usda.gov (J.A.M.); wwidmer@ 123456gmail.com (W.W.W.); gary.luzio@ 123456ars.usda.gov (G.L.); Randall.cameron@ 123456ars.usda.gov (R.C.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jinhe.bai@ 123456ars.usda.gov ; Tel: +1-772-462-5880; Fax: +1-772-462-5986
                Article
                foods-05-00004
                10.3390/foods5010004
                5224568
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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