Jan Felix Drexler 1 , Victor Max Corman 1 , Marcel Alexander Müller 1 , Alexander N. Lukashev 2 , Anatoly Gmyl 2 , 3 , Bruno Coutard 4 , Alexander Adam 5 , Daniel Ritz 1 , Lonneke M. Leijten 6 , Debby van Riel 6 , Rene Kallies 1 , Stefan M. Klose 7 , Florian Gloza-Rausch 1 , 8 , Tabea Binger 1 , Augustina Annan 9 , Yaw Adu-Sarkodie 10 , Samuel Oppong 10 , Mathieu Bourgarel 11 , Daniel Rupp 12 , Bernd Hoffmann 13 , Mathias Schlegel 14 , Beate M. Kümmerer 1 , Detlev H. Krüger 15 , Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit 16 , Alvaro Aguilar Setién 17 , Veronika M. Cottontail 7 , Thiravat Hemachudha 18 , Supaporn Wacharapluesadee 18 , Klaus Osterrieder 19 , Ralf Bartenschlager 12 , Sonja Matthee 20 , Martin Beer 13 , Thijs Kuiken 6 , Chantal Reusken 21 , Eric M. Leroy 22 , 23 , Rainer G. Ulrich 14 , Christian Drosten 1 , *
20 June 2013
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is among the most relevant causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Research is complicated by a lack of accessible small animal models. The systematic investigation of viruses of small mammals could guide efforts to establish such models, while providing insight into viral evolutionary biology. We have assembled the so-far largest collection of small-mammal samples from around the world, qualified to be screened for bloodborne viruses, including sera and organs from 4,770 rodents (41 species); and sera from 2,939 bats (51 species). Three highly divergent rodent hepacivirus clades were detected in 27 (1.8%) of 1,465 European bank voles ( Myodes glareolus) and 10 (1.9%) of 518 South African four-striped mice ( Rhabdomys pumilio). Bats showed anti-HCV immunoblot reactivities but no virus detection, although the genetic relatedness suggested by the serologic results should have enabled RNA detection using the broadly reactive PCR assays developed for this study. 210 horses and 858 cats and dogs were tested, yielding further horse-associated hepaciviruses but none in dogs or cats. The rodent viruses were equidistant to HCV, exceeding by far the diversity of HCV and the canine/equine hepaciviruses taken together. Five full genomes were sequenced, representing all viral lineages. Salient genome features and distance criteria supported classification of all viruses as hepaciviruses. Quantitative RT-PCR, RNA in-situ hybridisation, and histopathology suggested hepatic tropism with liver inflammation resembling hepatitis C. Recombinant serology for two distinct hepacivirus lineages in 97 bank voles identified seroprevalence rates of 8.3 and 12.4%, respectively. Antibodies in bank vole sera neither cross-reacted with HCV, nor the heterologous bank vole hepacivirus. Co-occurrence of RNA and antibodies was found in 3 of 57 PCR-positive bank vole sera (5.3%). Our data enable new hypotheses regarding HCV evolution and encourage efforts to develop rodent surrogate models for HCV.
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most relevant causes of liver disease and cancer in humans. The lack of a small animal models represents an important hurdle on our way to understanding, treating, and preventing hepatitis C. The investigation of small mammals could identify virus infections similar to hepatitis C in animals that can be kept in laboratories, such as rodents, and can also yield insights into the evolution of those ancestral virus lineages out of which HCV developed. Here, we investigated a worldwide sample of 4,770 rodents, 2,939 bats, 210 horses and 858 cats and dogs for HCV-related viruses. New viruses were discovered in European bank voles ( Myodes glareolus) and South African four-striped mice ( Rhabdomys pumilio). The disease in bank voles was studied in more detail, suggesting that infection of the liver occurs with similar symptoms to those caused by HCV in humans. These rodents might thus enable the development of new laboratory models of hepatitis C. Moreover, the phylogenetic history of those viruses provides fascinating new ideas regarding the evolution of HCV ancestors.