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      Sistemas de salud móvil integrados: Rol de los factores socioculturales y el enfoque de sistemas sociotécnico Translated title: Integrated mobile health systems: Role of socio-cultural factors and the socio-technical systems approach

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN En este artículo se discute el rol de los factores socioculturales para el fortalecimiento de los sistemas de salud móvil integrados. Se enfatiza la importancia de que toda iniciativa en salud móvil integre el análisis de los factores socioculturales durante el proceso de diseño e implementación de programas e intervenciones de investigación. El enfoque sociocultural y sociotécnico consideran, además, el factor humano, así como los condicionantes del entorno y el contexto, más allá de los recursos tecnológicos del sistema de salud móvil y la infraestructura que lo acoge. Metodologías como estudios observacionales, grupos focales, y entrevistas a profundidad deberían ser incluidas, idealmente, en todo proyecto en salud móvil. Asimismo, se presenta un estudio de caso en la zona norte de Lima (Perú), adaptando la plataforma de investigación participativa basada en la comunidad (CBPR, por sus siglas en inglés) que se fundamenta en el enfoque sociotécnico y evalúa los factores socioculturales con el objetivo de optimizar el proceso de diagnóstico de la tuberculosis utilizando las tecnologías móviles en salud (salud móvil).

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT This paper discusses the role of socio-cultural factors in strengthening integrated mobile health systems. Emphasis is placed on the importance that any initiative in mobile health should consider the analysis of socio-cultural factors during the process of the development and implementation of programs and research interventions. The socio-cultural and socio-technical approach also consider the human factor and considers the conditions of the environment and the context beyond the technological resources of the mobile health system and the infrastructure that supports it. Methodologies such as observational studies, focus groups, and in-depth interviews should be included ideally in any mobile health study. We also present a case study in the north area of Lima (Peru), adapting the Community-Based Participatory Research platform that is based on a socio-technical approach and evaluates the socio-cultural approach with the objective to optimize the diagnosis process of tuberculosis using mobile health.

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          A new sociotechnical model for studying health information technology in complex adaptive healthcare systems.

          Conceptual models have been developed to address challenges inherent in studying health information technology (HIT). This manuscript introduces an eight-dimensional model specifically designed to address the sociotechnical challenges involved in design, development, implementation, use and evaluation of HIT within complex adaptive healthcare systems. The eight dimensions are not independent, sequential or hierarchical, but rather are interdependent and inter-related concepts similar to compositions of other complex adaptive systems. Hardware and software computing infrastructure refers to equipment and software used to power, support and operate clinical applications and devices. Clinical content refers to textual or numeric data and images that constitute the 'language' of clinical applications. The human--computer interface includes all aspects of the computer that users can see, touch or hear as they interact with it. People refers to everyone who interacts in some way with the system, from developer to end user, including potential patient-users. Workflow and communication are the processes or steps involved in ensuring that patient care tasks are carried out effectively. Two additional dimensions of the model are internal organisational features (eg, policies, procedures and culture) and external rules and regulations, both of which may facilitate or constrain many aspects of the preceding dimensions. The final dimension is measurement and monitoring, which refers to the process of measuring and evaluating both intended and unintended consequences of HIT implementation and use. We illustrate how our model has been successfully applied in real-world complex adaptive settings to understand and improve HIT applications at various stages of development and implementation.
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            The provision of and need for social support among adult and pediatric patients with tuberculosis in Lima, Peru: a qualitative study

            Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health problem in Peru, causing an estimated 35,000 new cases each year, 6.7% of whom are co-infected with HIV. Social support mechanisms are key in influencing health-seeking behavior, adherence, and overall patient wellbeing in clinical settings. We examine the types of social support received by TB patients and parents of pediatric patients in peri-urban Lima, Peru, to understand its role in patients’ psychosocial wellbeing during treatment. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted between August 2004 and May 2005 among 43 individuals: 19 adults with TB, 8 adults with TB/HIV, 13 parents of pediatric TB patients, and 3 parents of pediatric TB/HIV patients. Results Patients described the need for psychosocial support to mitigate the difficulty of continually going to the clinic to take medications, tending to other family or professional responsibilities while on treatment, and confronting stigma and social isolation within their community. Family members most often contributed to meeting these psychosocial needs, and were also crucial in providing economic support to patients faced with burdensome medical expenses or who were forced to leave their jobs due to being on treatment. Most healthcare personnel were described as key providers of emotional support and encouragement for patients to successfully adhere to treatment, however there were a select few doctors whose “scare tactics” seemingly discouraged patient adherence. During the treatment process, patients described being more socially withdrawn as a result of feeling fatigued from their medications, however most participants also described forming new mutually supportive friendships among their fellow patients. Conclusions Despite the general reluctance of patients to disclose their disease status, patients received a significant amount of psychosocial support from both family members to whom they disclosed, and from positive interactions with healthcare providers. High levels of depression were reported, with many patients voicing need for improved and more frequent psychological interventions. To improve the Peru TB program, participants suggested extending educational opportunities to patients’ families and the wider community, increasing the existing amount of nutritional support, and programmatic provision of vocational activities to increase economic opportunities.
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              Tuberculosis in Bombay: new insights from poor urban patients.

              This study explores the health seeking behaviour of poor male and female tuberculosis patients in Bombay, and examines their perceptions of the causes and effects of the disease on their personal lives. Sixteen patients who attended an NGO's tuberculosis clinic were interviewed in-depth. Almost equal numbers of respondents stated 'germs' and 'worry' as the cause of tuberculosis. Men worried about loss of wages, financial difficulties, reduced capacity for work, poor job performance, and the consequences of long absence from work. Women were concerned about rejection by husband, harassment by in-laws, and the reduced chances of marriage (for single women), in addition to their concerns about dismissal from work. During the first two months of symptoms most patients either did nothing or took home remedies. When symptoms continued, private practitioners were the first source of allopathic treatment; they were generally unable to correctly diagnose the disease. Respondents shifted to municipal and NGO health services when private treatment became unaffordable. Respondents shifted again to NGO-based services because of the poor quality of municipal tuberculosis control services. The wage-earning capacity of both men and women was affected, but women feared loss of employment whereas men, being self-employed, lost wages but not employment. Married men and single women perceived a greater level of family support to initiate and complete treatment. Married women tried, often unsuccessfully, to hide their disease condition for fear of desertion, rejection or blame for bringing the disease. Women dropped out from treatment because of the pressure of housework, and the strain of keeping their condition secret particularly when the reasons for their movements outside the home were routinely questioned. Health programmes will have to be sensitive to the different needs and concerns of urban men and women with tuberculosis; in the case of women, health care providers will have to make particular efforts to identify and treat married women with tuberculosis completely.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rins
                Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica
                Rev. perú. med. exp. salud publica
                Instituto Nacional de Salud (Lima, , Peru )
                1726-4634
                September 2017
                : 34
                : 3
                : 544-550
                Affiliations
                [1] MA orgnameUniversity of Massachusetts Lowell orgdiv1Department of Public Health USA
                [2] Seattle Washington orgnameUniversity of Washington orgdiv1School of Medicine orgdiv2Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Education United States
                Article
                S1726-46342017000300544
                10.17843/rpmesp.2017.343.2859
                3a1cb496-a493-4d5f-a0ab-be7be90589ac

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 7
                Product
                Product Information: website

                Factores culturales,Sistemas de información,Tecnología de la información,Tuberculosis,Perú,Cultural factors,Information systems,Information technology,Peru

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