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      Effects of Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide on the Direct-Current Electroretinogram of the Rabbit Eye


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          Pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a recently discovered neuropeptide present in two different forms, PACAP-27 and PACAP-38. Both peptides stimulate the catalytic enzyme adenylate cyclase in pituitary cells. This enzyme is important also regarding the function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The purpose of the study was to investigate possible influences of PACAP on the rabbit retina and the RPE as reflected in the direct-current (d.c.) electroretinogram (ERG) and the standing potential of the eye (SP). After unilateral sector vitrectomy, a continuous intraocular perfusion with a reference solution alternated with a test solution was established. The corneal d.c. ERG and the SP were recorded from both eyes with the contralateral eye as a control. Both PACAP-27 (0.1 and 1 µ M) and PACAP-38 (1 µ M) increased the c-wave amplitude significantly (p = 0.028, p = 0.013 and p = 0.024, respectively, n = 4) while neither PACAP-27 (0.1 and 1 µ M, p > 0.05, n = 4) nor PACAP-38 (1 µ M, p > 0.05, n = 4) produced any significant effects on the a- and b-wave amplitudes of the d.c. ERG. The SP response to the two substances differed with a significant elevation of the SP level with PACAP-27 (1 µ M, p = 0.017, n = 4), while PACAP-38 induced a small, nonsignificant SP elevation (1 µ M, p > 0.05, n = 4). Retinal penetrations during PACAP-27 (10 µ M) perfusion showed an increase in transepithelial potential (TEP) c-wave (p = 0.003) as well as in slow PIII (p = 0.011, n = 3) amplitude level. The results support the presence of PACAP receptors both on the RPE and in the neural retina.

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          Most cited references3

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          • Abstract: found
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          Characterization of ocular receptors for pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and their coupling to adenylate cyclase.

          Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), a recently discovered neuropeptide, has large structural homology with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Two molecular forms exist, one with 27 (PACAP-27) and one with 38 (PACAP-38) amino acids. PACAP-27 is identical to the N-terminal of PACAP-38. Two major types of PACAP receptors have been identified; selective PACAP receptors, which bind PACAP with a much higher affinity than VIP, and non-selective VIP/PACAP receptors, which bind PACAP and VIP with equally high affinity. In the present investigation, PACAP receptors in different parts of the albino rabbit eye, and their coupling to adenylate cyclase were characterized. Crude tissue homogenates from iris, ciliary body, retina and choroid were used. Competition binding curves were established for VIP, PACAP-27 and PACAP-38, with [125I]VIP or [125I-Acetyl-His1]PACAP-27 as tracer. The effects on adenylate cyclase activity were determined by plotting dose-response curves (10(-10)-10(-6) M) for VIP, PACAP-27 and PACAP-38. The anterior uvea had mainly (approximately 80%) non-selective VIP/PACAP receptors, but a small amount of selective PACAP receptors was detected. In the retina, the selective PACAP receptor predominated (approximately 85%), while the choroid (including the retinal pigment epithelium) had approximately 60% selective PACAP receptors. PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 stimulated the formation of cAMP with the same efficacy: 6.9-fold in the ciliary body, 3.6-fold in the iris, 5.1-fold in the retina and 2.3-fold in the choroid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            PACAP-27 and PACAP-38: vascular effects in the eye and some other tissues in the rabbit.

            The effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on regional blood flow in the eye and other tissues were investigated in albino rabbits. Direct determination of the flow from a cannulated vortex vein, in animals pretreated with a vasopressin receptor antagonist, showed that i.v. infusion of either PACAP-27 or PACAP-38 caused a dose-dependent (0.08-0.64 pmol/kg per min) decrease in the uveal vascular resistance. Regional blood flow was determined, with radioactive microspheres, during i.v. infusion of PACAP-27 or PACAP-38 (0.64 pmol/kg per min) in rabbits pretreated with hexamethonium and a vasopressin receptor antagonist. In these experiments, both PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 increased choroidal blood flow by about 50%, whereas there was no effect in the anterior uvea. Nor was there any major effect on blood flow in the anterior uvea after intracameral injection of PACAP-27 or PACAP-38 (3 pmol). The largest blood flow increases, caused by i.v. infusion of PACAP-27 or PACAP-38, were observed in the parotid gland, submandibular gland, eyelids and nictitating membrane. Local blood flow in the choroid plexus, pineal gland, posterior pituitary gland, stomach, kidney and adrenal gland was also significantly increased during the i.v. infusion of PACAP-27. The results of the present investigation indicate that PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 are about 100 times more potent than vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine isoleucine as vasodilators in the rabbit choroid and, possibly, also in many other tissues of the rabbit.
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              ERG dependence on flow rate in the isolated and perfused mammalian eye


                Author and article information

                Ophthalmic Res
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                August 1998
                12 June 1998
                : 30
                : 4
                : 199-206
                a Department of Ophthalmology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; b Department of Ophthalmology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan
                55476 Ophthalmic Res 1998;30:199–206
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 23, Pages: 8
                Original Paper

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Pituitary adenylate-cyclase- activating polypeptide,Electroretinogram,Standing potential,Retina,Retinal pigment epithelium,Rabbit


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