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      Microfluidic synthesis control technology and its application in drug delivery, bioimaging, biosensing, environmental analysis and cell analysis

      , , , , , , ,

      Chemical Engineering Journal

      Elsevier BV

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          Controlled microfluidic interfaces.

          The microfabrication technologies of the semiconductor industry have made it possible to integrate increasingly complex electronic and mechanical functions, providing us with ever smaller, cheaper and smarter sensors and devices. These technologies have also spawned microfluidics systems for containing and controlling fluid at the micrometre scale, where the increasing importance of viscosity and surface tension profoundly affects fluid behaviour. It is this confluence of available microscale engineering and scale-dependence of fluid behaviour that has revolutionized our ability to precisely control fluid/fluid interfaces for use in fields ranging from materials processing and analytical chemistry to biology and medicine.
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            Synthesis of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals in a Droplet-Based Microfluidic Platform: Fast Parametric Space Mapping.

            Prior to this work, fully inorganic nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskite (CsPbX3, X = Br, I, Cl and Cl/Br and Br/I mixed halide systems), exhibiting bright and tunable photoluminescence, have been synthesized using conventional batch (flask-based) reactions. Unfortunately, our understanding of the parameters governing the formation of these nanocrystals is still very limited due to extremely fast reaction kinetics and multiple variables involved in ion-metathesis-based synthesis of such multinary halide systems. Herein, we report the use of a droplet-based microfluidic platform for the synthesis of CsPbX3 nanocrystals. The combination of online photoluminescence and absorption measurements and the fast mixing of reagents within such a platform allows the rigorous and rapid mapping of the reaction parameters, including molar ratios of Cs, Pb, and halide precursors, reaction temperatures, and reaction times. This translates into enormous savings in reagent usage and screening times when compared to analogous batch synthetic approaches. The early-stage insight into the mechanism of nucleation of metal halide nanocrystals suggests similarities with multinary metal chalcogenide systems, albeit with much faster reaction kinetics in the case of halides. Furthermore, we show that microfluidics-optimized synthesis parameters are also directly transferrable to the conventional flask-based reaction.
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              Is Open Access

              Microfluidic Devices for Drug Delivery Systems and Drug Screening

              Microfluidic devices present unique advantages for the development of efficient drug carrier particles, cell-free protein synthesis systems, and rapid techniques for direct drug screening. Compared to bulk methods, by efficiently controlling the geometries of the fabricated chip and the flow rates of multiphase fluids, microfluidic technology enables the generation of highly stable, uniform, monodispersed particles with higher encapsulation efficiency. Since the existing preclinical models are inefficient drug screens for predicting clinical outcomes, microfluidic platforms might offer a more rapid and cost-effective alternative. Compared to 2D cell culture systems and in vivo animal models, microfluidic 3D platforms mimic the in vivo cell systems in a simple, inexpensive manner, which allows high throughput and multiplexed drug screening at the cell, organ, and whole-body levels. In this review, the generation of appropriate drug or gene carriers including different particle types using different configurations of microfluidic devices is highlighted. Additionally, this paper discusses the emergence of fabricated microfluidic cell-free protein synthesis systems for potential use at point of care as well as cell-, organ-, and human-on-a-chip models as smart, sensitive, and reproducible platforms, allowing the investigation of the effects of drugs under conditions imitating the biological system.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Chemical Engineering Journal
                Chemical Engineering Journal
                Elsevier BV
                13858947
                November 2020
                November 2020
                : 399
                : 125748
                Article
                10.1016/j.cej.2020.125748
                © 2020

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