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      Pharmacokinetic profile of defibrotide in patients with renal impairment

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          Hepatic veno-occlusive disease, also called sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS), is an unpredictable, potentially life-threatening complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplant conditioning. Severe VOD/SOS, generally associated with multiorgan dysfunction (pulmonary or renal dysfunction), may be associated with >80% mortality. Defibrotide, recently approved in the US, has demonstrated efficacy treating hepatic VOD/SOS with multiorgan dysfunction. Because renal impairment is prevalent in patients with VOD/SOS, this Phase I, open-label, two-part study in adults examined the effects of hemodialysis and severe or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on defibrotide pharmacokinetics (PK). Part 1 compared defibrotide PK during single 6.25 mg/kg doses infused with and without dialysis. Part 2 assessed defibrotide plasma PK after multiple 6.25 mg/kg doses in nondialysis-dependent subjects with severe/ESRD versus healthy matching subjects. Among six subjects enrolled in Part 1, percent ratios of least-squares mean and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) on dialysis and nondialysis days were 109.71 (CI: 97.23, 123.78) for maximum observed plasma concentration (C max); 108.39 (CI: 97.85, 120.07) for area under the concentration–time curve to the time of the last quantifiable plasma concentration (AUC 0–t); and 109.98 (CI: 99.39, 121.70) for AUC extrapolated to infinity (AUC 0–∞). These ranges were within 80%–125%, indicating no significant effect of dialysis on defibrotide exposure/clearance. In Part 2, defibrotide exposure parameters in six subjects with severe/ESRD after multiple doses (AUC 0–t, 113 µg·h/mL; AUC over dosing interval, 113 µg·h/mL; C max, 53.8 µg/mL) were within 5%–8% of parameters after the first dose (AUC 0–t, 117 µg·h/mL; AUC 0–∞, 118 µg·h/mL; C max, 54.9 µg/mL), indicating no accumulation. Defibrotide peak and extent of exposures in those with severe/ESRD were ~35%–37% and 50%–60% higher, respectively, versus controls, following single and multiple doses. One adverse event (vomiting, possibly drug-related) was reported. These findings support defibrotide prescribing guidance stating no dose adjustment is necessary for hemodialysis or severe/ESRD.

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          Veno-occlusive disease of the liver and multiorgan failure after bone marrow transplantation: a cohort study of 355 patients.

          To determine the incidence and clinical course of veno-occlusive disease of the liver (VOD) after bone marrow transplantation and to analyze risk factors for severe VOD. Cohort study of 355 consecutive patients. A bone marrow transplantation center. Each patient was prospectively evaluated for VOD, and many risk factors for severe VOD were analyzed using logistic regression models. The relation of VOD to renal and cardiopulmonary failure was analyzed using time-dependent proportional hazards models. Veno-occlusive disease developed in 190 of 355 patients (54%; 95% CI, 48% to 59%): Fifty-four patients had severe VOD and 136 had mild or moderate VOD. Independent variables derived from a multivariate model for predicting severe VOD included elevated transaminase values before transplantation (relative risk, 4.6; P < 0.0001); vancomycin therapy during cytoreductive therapy (relative risk, 2.9; P = 0.003); cytoreductive therapy with a high-dose regimen (relative risk, 2.8; P = 0.01); acyclovir therapy before transplantation (relative risk, 4.8; P = 0.02); mismatched or unrelated donor marrow (relative risk, 2.4; P = 0.02); and previous radiation therapy to the abdomen (relative risk, 2.2; P = 0.04). Vancomycin therapy was a marker for persistent fever. Multiorgan failure was more frequent among patients with VOD and usually followed the onset of liver disease. Veno-occlusive disease, which developed in 54% of bone marrow transplant recipients, is frequently associated with renal and cardiopulmonary failure. Pretransplant transaminase elevations, use of high-dose cytoreductive therapy, and persistent fever during cytoreductive therapy are independent predictors of severe VOD.
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            Venoocclusive disease of the liver following bone marrow transplantation.

            Review of 235 consecutive patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation was performed in order to define the clinical syndrome of venoocclusive disease of the liver (VOD) in these patients. Analysis of all patients with histologically proven VOD revealed a consistent clinical syndrome of liver dysfunction occurring within the first 3 weeks after marrow infusion. This was characterized by hyperbilirubinemia peaking at greater than or equal to 2 mg/dl with at least 2 of 3 other findings: hepatomegaly, ascites, and 5% or greater weight gain. VOD developed in 22% (52 of 235). A persistently elevated aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) prior to transplant was associated with an increased risk of developing VOD by multivariate analysis (P = 0.0003), and acute leukemia in first remission was associated with a decreased risk (P = 0.02). Neither the preparative regimen (busulfan and cyclophosphamide versus cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation) nor the type of graft (allogeneic versus autologous) influenced the occurrence. Twenty-four of these 52 patients (47%) died with VOD (10% of the entire group). This makes VOD the third leading cause of death in our allogeneic graft recipients, and the second leading cause in our patients receiving autologous transplants. VOD is a common complication of bone marrow transplantation and has a specific clinical presentation, which usually allows diagnosis without the need of liver biopsy.
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              Defibrotide for prophylaxis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease in paediatric haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation: an open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial.

              Hepatic veno-occlusive disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We aimed to assess whether defibrotide can reduce the incidence of veno-occlusive disease in this setting. In our phase 3 open-label, randomised controlled trial, we enrolled patients at 28 European university hospitals or academic medical centres. Eligible patients were younger than 18 years, had undergone myeloablative conditioning before allogeneic or autologous HSCT, and had one or more risk factor for veno-occlusive disease based on modified Seattle criteria. We centrally assigned eligible participants on the basis of a computer-generated randomisation sequence (1:1), stratified by centre and presence of osteopetrosis, to receive intravenous defibrotide prophylaxis (treatment group) or not (control group). The primary endpoint was incidence of veno-occlusive disease by 30 days after HSCT, adjudicated by a masked, independent review committee, in eligible patients who consented to randomisation (intention-to-treat population), and was assessed with a competing risk approach. Patients in either group who developed veno-occlusive disease received defibrotide for treatment. We assessed adverse events to 180 days after HSCT in all patients who received allocated prophylaxis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00272948. Between Jan 25, 2006, and Jan 29, 2009, we enrolled 356 eligible patients to the intention-to-treat population. 22 (12%) of 180 patients randomly allocated to the defibrotide group had veno-occlusive disease by 30 days after HSCT compared with 35 (20%) of 176 controls (risk difference -7·7%, 95% CI -15·3 to -0·1; Z test for competing risk analysis p=0·0488; log-rank test p=0·0507). 154 (87%) of 177 patients in the defibrotide group had adverse events by day 180 compared with 155 (88%) of 176 controls. Defibrotide prophylaxis seems to reduce incidence of veno-occlusive disease and is well tolerated. Thus, such prophylaxis could present a useful clinical option for this serious complication of HSCT. Gentium SpA, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                16 August 2016
                : 10
                : 2631-2641
                [1 ]Gentium
                [2 ]Clinical Operations, Gentium, Villa Guardia, Como, Italy
                [3 ]Reporting and Analysis Services, Pharsight, a Certara Company, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
                [4 ]Orlando Clinical Research Center, Orlando, FL
                [5 ]Early Development and Clinical Pharmacology, Jazz Pharmaceuticals
                [6 ]Early Drug Development, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Palo Alto, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Paola Tocchetti, Biologa Nutrizionista, Via F Marchesoli 3, 22100 Como, Italy, Tel +39 347 431 6587, Email paola.tocchetti@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2016 Tocchetti et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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