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      Functional components of grape pomace: their composition, biological properties and potential applications

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      International Journal of Food Science & Technology
      Wiley

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          Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals.

          Chemoprevention refers to the use of agents to inhibit, reverse or retard tumorigenesis. Numerous phytochemicals derived from edible plants have been reported to interfere with a specific stage of the carcinogenic process. Many mechanisms have been shown to account for the anticarcinogenic actions of dietary constituents, but attention has recently been focused on intracellular-signalling cascades as common molecular targets for various chemopreventive phytochemicals.
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            Interaction between phenolics and gut microbiota: role in human health.

            Dietary phenolic compounds are often transformed before absorption. This transformation modulates their biological activity. Different studies have been carried out to understand gut microbiota transformations of particular polyphenol types and identify the responsible microorganisms. Although there are potentially thousands of different phenolic compounds in the diet, they are typically transformed to a much smaller number of metabolites. The aim of this review was to discuss the current information about the microbial degradation metabolites obtained from different phenolics and their formation pathways, identifying their differences and similarities. The modulation of gut microbial population by phenolics was also reviewed in order to understand the two-way phenolic-microbiota interaction. Clostridium and Eubacterium genera, which are phylogenetically associated, are other common elements involved in the metabolism of many phenolics. The health benefits from phenolic consumption should be attributed to their bioactive metabolites and also to the modulation of the intestinal bacterial population.
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              Dietary fiber and body weight.

              This review provides an update of recent studies of dietary fiber and weight and includes a discussion of potential mechanisms of how dietary fiber can aid weight loss and weight maintenance. Human studies published on dietary fiber and body weight were reviewed and summarized. Dietary fiber content of popular low-carbohydrate diets were calculated and are presented. Epidemiologic support that dietary fiber intake prevents obesity is strong. Fiber intake is inversely associated with body weight and body fat. In addition, fiber intake is inversely associated with body mass index at all levels of fat intake after adjusting for confounding factors. Results from intervention studies are more mixed, although the addition of dietary fiber generally decreases food intake and, hence, body weight. Many mechanisms have been suggested for how dietary fiber aids in weight management, including promoting satiation, decreasing absorption of macronutrients, and altering secretion of gut hormones. The average fiber intake of adults in the United States is less than half recommended levels and is lower still among those who follow currently popular low-carbohydrate diets, such as Atkins and South Beach. Increasing consumption of dietary fiber with fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes across the life cycle is a critical step in stemming the epidemic of obesity found in developed countries. The addition of functional fiber to weight-loss diets should also be considered as a tool to improve success.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                International Journal of Food Science & Technology
                Int J Food Sci Technol
                Wiley
                09505423
                February 2013
                February 01 2013
                : 48
                : 2
                : 221-237
                Article
                10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03197.x
                3a2e4174-0541-4e76-9974-9dd999ef74f5
                © 2013

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1


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