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      Molecular prevalence of Theileria infections in cattle in Yanbian, north-eastern China Translated title: Prévalence moléculaire des infections à Theileria chez les bovins à Yanbian, dans le nord-est de la Chine

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      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Theileria orientalis, Theileria sinensis, Yanbian, Epidemiology

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          Abstract

          Bovine Theileria are tick-borne protozoan parasites that invade bovine erythrocytes and lymphocytes. Three main bovine Theileria species have been identified in China: T. orientalis, T. sinensis, and T. annulata. To examine the prevalence of bovine theileriosis in Yanbian, a total of 584 bovine blood samples were collected from five localities from 2017 to 2019 and analyzed by PCR. Six pairs of oligonucleotide primers directed against the 18S rRNA gene of Theileria spp., Tams-1 gene of T. annulata, MPSP gene of T. orientalis, and T. sinensis, were used to detect these parasites. A sequence analysis of the amplified genes confirmed that the Theileria species were T. orientalis and T. sinensis, without T. annulata. The overall prevalence of Theileria in cattle was 42.81% (250/584). Out of the 584 samples, 159 (27.23%) and 157 (26.88%) were positive for T. sinensis and T. orientalis, respectively, and the mixed infection rate was 11.30% (66/584). The total prevalence of bovine Theileria species in Helong, Hunchun, Longjing, Yanji, and Dunhua was 66.28%, 49.68%, 23.81%, 28.15%, and 0%, respectively. These results provide epidemiological data for the prevention and control of bovine Theileria species in Yanbian, China.

          Translated abstract

          Les Theileria bovins sont des parasites protozoaires transmis par les tiques qui envahissent les érythrocytes et les lymphocytes des bovins. Trois espèces principales de Theileria de bovins ont été identifiées en Chine, T. orientalis, T. sinensis et T. annulata. Pour examiner la prévalence de la theilériose bovine à Yanbian, un total de 584 échantillons de sang bovin ont été collectés dans cinq localités de 2017 à 2019 et analysés par PCR. Six paires d’amorces oligonucléotidiques dirigées contre le gène d’ARNr 18S de Theileria spp., le gène Tams-1 de T. annulata et le gène MPSP de T. orientalis et T. sinensis, ont été utilisées pour détecter ces parasites. Une analyse de séquence des gènes amplifiés a confirmé que les espèces de Theileria étaient T. orientalis et T. sinensis, sans T. annulata. La prévalence globale des Theileria chez les bovins était de 42,81 % (250/584). Sur les 584 échantillons, 159 (27,23 %) et 157 (26,88 %) étaient positifs pour T. sinensis et T. orientalis, respectivement, et le taux d’infection mixte était de 11,30 % (66/584). La prévalence totale des espèces bovines de Theileria à Helong, Hunchun, Longjing, Yanji et Dunhua était respectivement de 66,28 %, 49,68 %, 23,81 %, 28,15 % et 0 %. Ces résultats fournissent des données épidémiologiques pour la prévention et le contrôle des espèces de Theileria de bovins à Yanbian, en Chine.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Molecular Detection of Vertebrates in Stream Water: A Demonstration Using Rocky Mountain Tailed Frogs and Idaho Giant Salamanders

          Stream ecosystems harbor many secretive and imperiled species, and studies of vertebrates in these systems face the challenges of relatively low detection rates and high costs. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has recently been confirmed as a sensitive and efficient tool for documenting aquatic vertebrates in wetlands and in a large river and canal system. However, it was unclear whether this tool could be used to detect low-density vertebrates in fast-moving streams where shed cells may travel rapidly away from their source. To evaluate the potential utility of eDNA techniques in stream systems, we designed targeted primers to amplify a short, species-specific DNA fragment for two secretive stream amphibian species in the northwestern region of the United States (Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, and Idaho giant salamanders, Dicamptodon aterrimus). We tested three DNA extraction and five PCR protocols to determine whether we could detect eDNA of these species in filtered water samples from five streams with varying densities of these species in central Idaho, USA. We successfully amplified and sequenced the targeted DNA regions for both species from stream water filter samples. We detected Idaho giant salamanders in all samples and Rocky Mountain tailed frogs in four of five streams and found some indication that these species are more difficult to detect using eDNA in early spring than in early fall. While the sensitivity of this method across taxa remains to be determined, the use of eDNA could revolutionize surveys for rare and invasive stream species. With this study, the utility of eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic vertebrates has been demonstrated across the majority of freshwater systems, setting the stage for an innovative transformation in approaches for aquatic research.
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            Epidemiological survey of Theileria orientalis infection in grazing cattle in the eastern part of Hokkaido, Japan.

            Theileria orientalis is one of the benign species of Theileria that is widely distributed in Japan and is sometimes responsible for serious economic losses in the livestock industry. In the present study, we surveyed the current status of T. orientalis infection in grazing cattle in the eastern areas of Hokkaido (Taiki, Otofuke, Shintoku, and Shin-Hidaka districts) using molecular methods, as well as traditional methods, of diagnosis. The genes encoding the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) and p23 of T. orientalis were identified using highly detectable polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results of the MPSP-PCR assay indicated that grazing cattle in these districts, after about 1.5 months pasturage, showed high rates of infection, ranging from 10.0-64.8%. Although the main MPSP and p23 genotypes detected were the Ikeda- or Chitose-types, an MPSP gene closely relating to that found in Okinawa prefecture, and a p23 gene closely relating to the Australian (Warwick) Buffeli-type gene, were found in the cattle in Shintoku and Shin-Hidaka districts. The present survey indicated that there were at least five types of T. orientalis classified by their MPSP genes in Hokkaido, Japan, and that T. orientalis infection rates are still high in this region.
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              Detecting and differentiating Theileria sergenti and Theileria sinensis in cattle and yaks by PCR based on major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP).

              Theileria sergenti and Theileria sinensis are closely related members of benign Theileria species found in cattle and yaks in China. They are morphologically indistinguishable. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting major piroplasm surface protein of T. sergenti and T. sinensis was developed in this study. The newly developed oligonucleotide primer set was able to specifically amplify the DNA of T. sinensis and in conjunction with primers for T. sergenti and these two species could be detected and distinguished. Specificity testing also revealed that there was no cross-reaction with the other tick-borne diseases Theileria annulata, Babesia ovata, Anaplasma marginale as well as bovine white blood cells. Phylogenetic analysis based on the MPSP gene sequences confirmed the specificity of PCR assays. The sensitivity of the methods was 0.1pg DNA for the T. sergenti PCR and 1pg DNA for T. sinensis PCR. Two hundred and thirty-six field blood samples from of cattle and yaks were collected from five different geographical regions in China where benign Theileria species have been found. T. sergenti was found in all five provinces but was absent from one county in Gansu Province. T. sinensis was only found in Gansu Province. In both counties in Gansu where the parasites co-existed, mixed infections were detected. Our results indicate that the PCR methods developed in this study are suitable for the detection and differentiation of T. sergenti and T. sinensis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2020
                30 March 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                Affiliations
                Laboratory of Veterinary Microbiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Agriculture College of Yanbian University No. 977 Park Road 133000 Yanji PR China
                Author notes
                [a]

                These authors and universities made an equal contribution to this study.

                [* ]Corresponding author: lijunjia1015@ 123456sohu.com
                Article
                parasite190171 10.1051/parasite/2020017
                10.1051/parasite/2020017
                7104619
                © L. Jia et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 26, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Article

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