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      Pharmaceutical suspension containing both immediate/sustained-release amoxicillin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles: preparation and in vitro characterization

      Drug Design, Development and Therapy

      Dove Medical Press

      nanoparticles, drug delivery, nano spray dryer, amoxicillin, H. pylori

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          Abstract

          Pharmaceutical suspension containing oral dosage forms delivering both immediate-release and sustained-release amoxicillin was developed as a new dosage form to eradicate Helicobacter pylori. Amoxicillin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles are able to bind with the mucosal membrane after delivery to the stomach and could escalate the effectiveness of a drug, providing dual release. The objective of this study was to develop amoxicillin nanoparticles using innovative new technology – the Büchi Nano Spray Dryer B-90 – and investigate such features as drug content, particle morphology, yield, in vitro release, flow properties, and stability. The nanoparticles had an average particle size of 571 nm. The drug content and percentage yield was 89.2% ± 0.5% and 93.3% ± 0.6%, respectively. Angle of repose of nanoparticle suspension was 26.3° and bulk density was 0.59 g/cm 3. In vitro drug release of formulations was best fitted by first-order and Peppas models with R 2 of 0.9841 and 0.9837 respectively; release profile was 15.9%, while; for the original drug, amoxicillin, under the same conditions, 90% was released in the first 30 minutes. The nanoparticles used in this study enabled sustained release of amoxicillin over an extended period of time, up to 12 hours, and were stable for 12 months under accelerated storage conditions of 25°C ± 2°C and 60% ± 5% relative humidity.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Nanoparticles by spray drying using innovative new technology: the Büchi nano spray dryer B-90.

          Spray drying technology is widely known and used to transform liquids (solutions, emulsions, suspension, slurries, pastes or even melts) into solid powders. Its main applications are found in the food, chemical and materials industries to enhance ingredient conservation, particle properties, powder handling and storage etc. However, spray drying can also be used for specific applications in the formulation of pharmaceuticals for drug delivery (e.g. particles for pulmonary delivery). Büchi is a reference in the development of spray drying technology, notably for laboratory scale devices. This study presents the Nano Spray Dryer B-90, a revolutionary new sprayer developed by Büchi, use of which can lower the size of the produced dried particles by an order of magnitude attaining submicron sizes. In this paper, results are presented with a panel of five representative polymeric wall materials (arabic gum, whey protein, polyvinyl alcohol, modified starch, and maltodextrin) and the potentials to encapsulate nano-emulsions, or to formulate nano-crystals (e.g. from furosemide) are also shown. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Formulation and characterization of spray-dried powders containing nanoparticles for aerosol delivery to the lung.

            Spray-drying is a common practice of powder preparation for a wide range of drugs. Spray-dried powders can be used to deliver particles to the lungs via a dry powder inhaler (DPI). The present study investigated the feasibility of developing a platform for aerosol delivery of nanoparticles. Lactose was used as the excipient and spray-dried with two different types of nanoparticles: gelatin and polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles. Results showed that some carrier particles were hollow while others had a continuous matrix. Gelatin nanoparticles were incorporated throughout the matrix and sometimes accumulated at one end of the lactose. Polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles mostly clustered in different spots within the lactose carriers. The mean sizes of both nanoparticle types were characterized at two different times: before they were spray-dried and after they were redissolved from the spray-dried powders. Both nanoparticle types remained in the nano-range size after spray-drying. The mean nanoparticle sizes were increased by approximately 30% after spray-drying, though this increase was statistically significant only for the gelatin nanoparticles. Dispersion of the powder with an in-house passive dry powder inhaler and subsequent cascade impaction measurements showed that incorporation of the nanoparticles did not affect the fine particle fraction (FPF) or mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the powders. FPF was approximately 40% while MMAD was 3.0+/-0.2 microm, indicating the present formulations yield aerosols of a suitable particle size for efficient lung delivery of nanoparticles. The present work demonstrates that nanoparticles can be delivered to the lungs via carrier particles that dissolve after coming in contact with the aqueous environment of the lung epithelium. This opens the way for new drug-targeting strategies using nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery of drugs and diagnostics.
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              Analyses of nanoformulated antiretroviral drug charge, size, shape and content for uptake, drug release and antiviral activities in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

              Long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) infection shows limitations in pharmacokinetics and biodistribution while inducing metabolic and cytotoxic aberrations. In turn, ART commonly requires complex dosing schedules and leads to the emergence of viral resistance and treatment failures. We posit that the development of nanoformulated ART could preclude such limitations and affect improved clinical outcomes. To this end, we wet-milled 20 nanoparticle formulations of crystalline indinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz, collectively referred to as "nanoART," then assessed their performance using a range of physicochemical and biological tests. These tests were based on cell-nanoparticle interactions using monocyte-derived macrophages and their abilities to uptake and release nanoformulated drugs and affect viral replication. We demonstrate that physical characteristics such as particle size, surfactant coating, surface charge, and most importantly shape are predictors of cell uptake and antiretroviral efficacy. These studies bring this line of research a step closer to developing nanoART that can be used in the clinic to affect the course of HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2013
                26 September 2013
                : 7
                : 1027-1033
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sree Harsha, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, PO Box 400, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia, Tel +966 5 3548 5322, Email sharsha@ 123456kfu.edu.sa ; harsha1975@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                dddt-7-1027
                10.2147/DDDT.S39956
                3790842
                © 2013 Harsha, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Research

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