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      Ultrastructure of mature spermatozoa of three Bucephalidae ( Prosorhynchus longisaccatus, Rhipidocotyle khalili and Bucephalus margaritae) and phylogenetic implications Translated title: Ultrastructure des spermatozoïdes mûrs de trois Bucephalidae ( Prosorhynchus longisaccatus, Rhipidocotyle khalili et Bucephalus margaritae) et implications phylogénétiques

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          We describe here the mature spermatozoa of three species of bucephalids, namely Bucephalus margaritae, Rhipidocotyle khalili and Prosorhynchus longisaccatus. This study provides the first ultrastructural data on the genera Bucephalus and Rhipidocotyle and enabled us to confirm the model of the mature spermatozoon in the Bucephalinae. The spermatozoon exhibits two axonemes with the 9 + “1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, one of which is very short, lateral expansion, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane located in the anterior extremity of the spermatozoon and associated with cortical microtubules, spine-like bodies, a mitochondrion, and a nucleus. The maximum number of cortical microtubules is located in the anterior part of the spermatozoon. However, more studies are needed to elucidate if spine-like bodies are present in all the Bucephalinae or not. In the Prosorhynchinae, the mature spermatozoon exhibits a similar ultrastructural pattern. Some differences are observed, particularly the axoneme lengths and the arrangement of the spine-like bodies. The posterior extremity of the spermatozoon in the Bucephalinae exhibits only the nucleus, but prosorhynchines have microtubules.

          Translated abstract

          Dans cette étude, nous décrivons les spermatozoïdes mûrs de trois espèces de bucephalidés, à savoir Bucephalus margaritae, Rhipidocotyle khalili et Prosorhynchus longisaccatus. Ces premières données ultrastructurales pour les genres Bucephalus et Rhipidocotyle nous ont permis de confirmer le modèle du spermatozoïde chez les Bucephalinae. Le spermatozoïde comprend deux axonèmes de type 9 + “1” des Trepaxonemata, l’un d’entre eux étant très court, une expansion latérale, une ornementation externe de la membrane plasmique située au niveau de l’extrémité antérieure du spermatozoïde et associée avec des microtubules corticaux, des corps en forme d’épines, une mitochondrie et un noyau. Le nombre maximum de microtubules corticaux est situé dans la partie antérieure du spermatozoïde. Toutefois, des études supplémentaires seraient nécessaires pour vérifier si les corps en forme d’épines sont présents chez tous les Bucephalinae. Chez les Prosorhynchinae, le spermatozoïde mûr présente une structure similaire. Quelques différences sont toutefois observées, notamment au niveau de la longueur des axonèmes et de la disposition des corps en forme d’épines. L’extrémité postérieure du spermatozoïde chez les Bucephalidae est caractérisée par la présence du noyau seul, alors que les Prosorhynchinae ont des microtubules.

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          Most cited references 29

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            Phylogeny and classification of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda).

            Complete small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (ssrDNA) and partial (D1-D3) large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (lsrDNA) sequences were used to estimate the phylogeny of the Digenea via maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Here we contribute 80 new ssrDNA and 124 new lsrDNA sequences. Fully complementary data sets of the two genes were assembled from newly generated and previously published sequences and comprised 163 digenean taxa representing 77 nominal families and seven aspidogastrean outgroup taxa representing three families. Analyses were conducted on the genes independently as well as combined and separate analyses including only the higher plagiorchiidan taxa were performed using a reduced-taxon alignment including additional characters that could not be otherwise unambiguously aligned. The combined data analyses yielded the most strongly supported results and differences between the two methods of analysis were primarily in their degree of resolution. The Bayesian analysis including all taxa and characters, and incorporating a model of nucleotide substitution (general-time-reversible with among-site rate heterogeneity), was considered the best estimate of the phylogeny and was used to evaluate their classification and evolution. In broad terms, the Digenea forms a dichotomy that is split between a lineage leading to the Brachylaimoidea, Diplostomoidea and Schistosomatoidea (collectively the Diplostomida nomen novum (nom. nov.)) and the remainder of the Digenea (the Plagiorchiida), in which the Bivesiculata nom. nov. and Transversotremata nom. nov. form the two most basal lineages, followed by the Hemiurata. The remainder of the Plagiorchiida forms a large number of independent lineages leading to the crown clade Xiphidiata nom. nov. that comprises the Allocreadioidea, Gorgoderoidea, Microphalloidea and Plagiorchioidea, which are united by the presence of a penetrating stylet in their cercariae. Although a majority of families and to a lesser degree, superfamilies are supported as currently defined, the traditional divisions of the Echinostomida, Plagiorchiida and Strigeida were found to comprise non-natural assemblages. Therefore, the membership of established higher taxa are emended, new taxa erected and a revised, phylogenetically based classification proposed and discussed in light of ontogeny, morphology and taxonomic history.
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              Mise en évidence des polysaccharides sur coupes fines en microscopie électronique


                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                07 December 2018
                : 25
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2018/01 )
                [1 ] Laboratory of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Management of Ecosystems, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar BP 5055 Dakar Senegal
                [2 ] UMR 6134 SPE, CNRS – Università di Corsica, Campus Grimaldi 20250 Corte, Corsica France
                [3 ] Institut Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum national d’Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE CP 51 57 rue Cuvier 75005 Paris France
                [4 ] Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum Cromwell Road London SW7 5BD United Kingdom
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: quilichini@ 123456univ-corse.fr
                parasite180130 10.1051/parasite/2018065
                © P. Ibnou Ndiaye et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 27, Pages: 12
                Research Article

                bucephalidae, digenea, phylogeny, spermatozoon, ultrastructure


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