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      Examining the Association between Food Literacy and Food Insecurity

      research-article
      1 , * , 1 , 2 , 1
      Nutrients
      MDPI
      food security, food literacy, cooking

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          Abstract

          Poor food literacy behaviours may contribute to food insecurity in developed countries. The aim of this research was to describe the apparent prevalence of food insecurity in adults at enrolment in a food literacy program and to examine the relationship between food insecurity and a range of independent variables. Individuals attending the Food Sensations ® for Adults program in Western Australia from May 2016 to April 2018 completed a pre-program questionnaire ( n = 1433) indicating if they had run out of money for food in the past month (food insecurity indicator), frequency of food literacy behaviours, selected dietary behaviours, and demographic characteristics. The level of food insecurity reported by participants ( n = 1379) was 40.5%. Results from multiple logistic regression demonstrated that behaviours related to planning and management, shopping, preparation, and cooking were all statistically independently associated with food insecurity, in addition to soft/soda drink consumption, education, employment status, and being born in Australia. The results are salient as they indicate an association between food literacy and food insecurity. The implications are that food insecure participants may respond differently to food literacy programs. It may be necessary to screen people enrolling in programs, tailor program content, and include comprehensive measures in evaluation to determine effect on the impact of food literacy programs on different subgroups.

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          Food insecurity among adults residing in disadvantaged urban areas: potential health and dietary consequences.

          Food insecurity is the limited or uncertain availability or access to nutritionally adequate, culturally appropriate and safe foods. Food insecurity may result in inadequate dietary intakes, overweight or obesity and the development of chronic disease. Internationally, few studies have focused on the range of potential health outcomes related to food insecurity among adults residing in disadvantaged locations and no such Australian studies exist. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between food insecurity, sociodemographic and health factors and dietary intakes among adults residing in disadvantaged urban areas. Data were collected by mail survey (n 505, 53 % response rate), which ascertained information about food security status, demographic characteristics (such as age, gender, household income, education) fruit and vegetable intakes, takeaway and meat consumption, general health, depression and chronic disease. Disadvantaged suburbs of Brisbane city, Australia, 2009. Individuals aged ≥ 20 years. Approximately one in four households (25 %) was food insecure. Food insecurity was associated with lower household income, poorer general health, increased health-care utilisation and depression. These associations remained after adjustment for age, gender and household income. Food insecurity is prevalent in urbanised disadvantaged areas in developed countries such as Australia. Low-income households are at high risk of experiencing food insecurity. Food insecurity may result in significant health burdens among the population, and this may be concentrated in socio-economically disadvantaged suburbs.
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            Impact of Cooking and Home Food Preparation Interventions Among Adults: A Systematic Review (2011–2016)

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              A healthy diet consistent with Australian health recommendations is too expensive for welfare-dependent families.

              Examine the cost of healthy food habits for welfare-dependent families in Australia. A seven-day meal plan was developed, based on Australian public health recommendations, for two typical welfare-dependent families: a couple-family (two adults, two children) and a one-parent family (one adult, two children). The cost of the meal plan was calculated using market brand and generic brand grocery items, and total cost compared to income. In Australia, the cost of healthy food habits uses about 40% of the disposable income of welfare-dependent families. Families earning an average income would spend only 20% of their disposable income to buy the same healthy food. Substituting generic brands for market brands reduced the weekly food cost by about 13%. This is one of few economic models to include generic brands. Compared with average-income Australian families, healthy food habits are a fiscal challenge to welfare-dependent families. These results provide a benchmark for economic and social policy analysis, and the influence disposable income has on prioritising healthy food habits.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                20 February 2019
                February 2019
                : 11
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth 6102, Australia; ellen.paynter@ 123456curtin.edu.au (E.P.); s.dhaliwal@ 123456curtin.edu.au (S.S.D.)
                [2 ]Foodbank Western Australia, Perth Airport 6105, Australia; lucy.butcher@ 123456foodbankwa.org.au
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: a.begley@ 123456curtin.edu.au ; Tel.: +61-8-9266-2773
                Article
                nutrients-11-00445
                10.3390/nu11020445
                6412525
                30791670
                3a3fe4e3-e1ef-42d7-abd0-3bfd82adadf9
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                food security,food literacy,cooking
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                food security, food literacy, cooking

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