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      Lay Definitions of Happiness across Nations: The Primacy of Inner Harmony and Relational Connectedness

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          Abstract

          In well-being research the term happiness is often used as synonymous with life satisfaction. However, little is known about lay people's understanding of happiness. Building on the available literature, this study explored lay definitions of happiness across nations and cultural dimensions, analyzing their components and relationship with participants' demographic features. Participants were 2799 adults (age range = 30–60, 50% women) living in urban areas of Argentina, Brazil, Croatia, Hungary, India, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, and United States. They completed the Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI), reporting, among other information, their own definition of happiness. Answers comprised definitions referring to a broad range of life domains, covering both the contextual-social sphere and the psychological sphere. Across countries and with little variation by age and gender, inner harmony predominated among psychological definitions, and family and social relationships among contextual definitions. Whereas relationships are widely acknowledged as basic happiness components, inner harmony is substantially neglected. Nevertheless, its cross-national primacy, together with relations, is consistent with the view of an ontological interconnectedness characterizing living systems, shared by several conceptual frameworks across disciplines and cultures. At the methodological level, these findings suggest the potential of a bottom-up, mixed method approach to contextualize psychological dimensions within culture and lay understanding.

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              Rethinking individualism and collectivism: evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses.

              Are Americans more individualistic and less collectivistic than members of other groups? The authors summarize plausible psychological implications of individualism-collectivism (IND-COL), meta-analyze cross-national and within-United States IND-COL differences, and review evidence for effects of IND-COL on self-concept, well-being, cognition, and relationality. European Americans were found to be both more individualistic-valuing personal independence more-and less collectivistic-feeling duty to in-groups less-than others. However, European Americans were not more individualistic than African Americans, or Latinos, and not less collectivistic than Japanese or Koreans. Among Asians, only Chinese showed large effects, being both less individualistic and more collectivistic. Moderate IND-COL effects were found on self-concept and relationality, and large effects were found on attribution and cognitive style.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-1078
                26 January 2016
                2016
                : 7
                : 30
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milano Milan, Italy
                [2] 2Department of Psychology, University of Rijeka Rijeka, Croatia
                [3] 3Africa Unit for Transdisciplinary Health Research, North-West University Potchefstroom, South Africa
                [4] 4School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo São Paulo, Brazil
                [5] 5Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad De Palermo Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [6] 6Department of Applied Psychology, School of Psychology, University of Minho Braga, Portugal
                [7] 7Estudios Sobre Equidad y Genero and FES-Iztacala, Unidad de Investigación Interdisciplinaria en Ciencias de la Salud y la Educación, Proyecto Aprendizaje Humano, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México Cuevarnaca, Mexico
                [8] 8School of Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington Wellington, New Zealand
                [9] 9Institute of Mental Health, Semmelweis University Budapest, Hungary
                [10] 10Department of Psychology, University of Oslo Oslo, Norway
                [11] 11Department of Psychology, Claremont Graduate University Claremont, CA, USA
                [12] 12Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi New Delhi, India
                [13] 13Anugraha Institute of Social Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University Dindigul, India
                Author notes

                Edited by: Andrew Ryder, Concordia University, Canada

                Reviewed by: Glenn Adams, University of Kansas, USA; Marina M. Doucerain, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada

                *Correspondence: Antonella Delle Fave antonella.dellefave@ 123456unimi.it

                This article was submitted to Cultural Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Article
                10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00030
                4726797
                26858677
                3a45c976-a68c-4eef-9bf1-0e71875863a8
                Copyright © 2016 Delle Fave, Brdar, Wissing, Araujo, Castro Solano, Freire, Hernández-Pozo, Jose, Martos, Nafstad, Nakamura, Singh and Soosai-Nathan.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 17 July 2015
                : 07 January 2016
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 8, Equations: 0, References: 97, Pages: 23, Words: 16989
                Funding
                Funded by: University of Rijeka, Croatia
                Award ID: project 13.04.1.3.05
                Funded by: Victoria University of Wellington 10.13039/501100001538
                Funded by: National Research Foundation 10.13039/501100001321
                Funded by: Department of Psychology, Claremont Graduate University, USA
                Funded by: Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia 10.13039/501100001871
                Categories
                Psychology
                Original Research

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                happiness,lay definitions,adulthood,culture,inner harmony,relationships,interconnectedness

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