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      n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids: update 1995

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      European Journal of Clinical Investigation

      Wiley

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          Immunologic effects of national cholesterol education panel step-2 diets with and without fish-derived N-3 fatty acid enrichment.

          Reductions in dietary fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol have been recommended to reduce the risk of heart disease in our society. The effects of these modifications on human cytokine production and immune responses have not been well studied. 22 subjects > 40 yr of age were fed a diet approximating that of the current American (14.1% of calories as saturated fatty acids, [SFA], 14.5% monounsaturated fatty acids [MUFA], 6.1% [n-6] polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA], 0.8% [n-3] PUFA, and 147 mg cholesterol/1,000 calories) for 6 wk, after which time they consumed (11 in each group) one of the two low-fat, low-cholesterol, high-PUFA diets based on National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP) Step 2 recommendations (4.0-4.5% SFA, 10.8-11.6% MUFA, 10.3-10.5% PUFA, 45-61 mg cholesterol/1,000 calories) for 24 wk. One of the NCEP Step 2 diets was enriched in fish-derived (n-3) PUFA (low-fat, high-fish: 0.54% or 1.23 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] [121-188 g fish/d]) and the other low in fish-derived (n-3) PUFA (low-fat, low-fish [0.13% or 0.27 g/d EPA and DHA] [33 g fish/d]). Measurements of in vivo and in vitro indexes of immune responses were taken after each dietary period. Long-term feeding of low-fat, low-fish diet enriched in plant-derived PUFA increased blood mononuclear cell mitogenic response to the T cell mitogen Con A, IL-1 beta, and TNF production and had no effect on delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response, IL-6, GM-CSF, or PGE2 production. In contrast, the low-fat, high-fish diet significantly decreased the percentage of helper T cells whereas the percentage of suppressor T cells increased. Mitogenic responses to Con A and delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response as well as the production of cytokines IL-1 beta, TNF, and IL-6 by mononuclear cells were significantly reduced after the consumption of the low-fat, high-fish diet (24, 40, 45, 35, and 34%, respectively; P < 0.05 by two-tailed Student's t test except for IL-1 beta and TNF, which is by one-tailed t test). Our data are consistent with the concept that the NCEP Step 2 diet that is high in fish significantly decreases various parameters of the immune response in contrast to this diet when it is low in fish. Such alterations may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic and inflammatory diseases but may be detrimental with regard to host defense against invading pathogens.
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            A controlled trial of fish oil in IgA nephropathy. Mayo Nephrology Collaborative Group.

            The n-3 fatty acids in fish oil affect eicosanoid and cytokine production and therefore have the potential to alter renal hemodynamics and inflammation. The effects of fish oil could prevent immunologic renal injury in patients with IgA nephropathy. In a multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized trial we tested the efficacy of fish oil in patients with IgA nephropathy who had persistent proteinuria. The daily dose of fish oil was 12 g; the placebo was a similar dose of olive oil. Serum creatinine concentrations, elevated in 68 percent of the patients at base line, and creatinine clearance were measured for two years. The primary end point was an increase of 50 percent or more in the serum creatinine concentration at the end of the study. Fifty-five patients were assigned to receive fish oil, and 51 to receive placebo. According to Kaplan-Meier estimation, 3 patients (6 percent) in the fish-oil group and 14 (33 percent) in the placebo group had increases of 50 percent or more in their serum creatinine concentrations during treatment (P = 0.002). The annual median changes in the serum creatinine concentrations were 0.03 mg per deciliter (2.7 mumol per liter) in the fish-oil group and 0.14 mg per deciliter (12.4 mumol per liter) in the placebo group. Proteinuria was slightly reduced and hypertension was controlled to a comparable degree in both groups. The cumulative percentage of patients who died or had end-stage renal disease was 40 percent in the placebo group after four years and 10 percent in the fish-oil group (P = 0.006). No patient discontinued fish-oil treatment because of adverse effects. In patients with IgA nephropathy, treatment with fish oil for two years retards the rate at which renal function is lost.
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              Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Journal of Clinical Investigation
                Eur J Clin Invest
                Wiley
                0014-2972
                1365-2362
                September 1995
                September 1995
                : 25
                : 9
                : 629-638
                Article
                10.1111/j.1365-2362.1995.tb01978.x
                © 1995

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