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      Attenuating the rate of total body fat accumulation and alleviating liver damage by oral administration of vitamin D-enriched edible mushrooms in a diet-induced obesity murine model is mediated by an anti-inflammatory paradigm shift

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          Hypovitaminosis D is associated with many features of the metabolic syndrome, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Vitamin D-enriched mushrooms extracts exert a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of the present study is to determine the immunomodulatory effect of oral administration of vitamin D-enriched mushrooms extracts on high-fat diet (HFD) animal model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).


          C57BL/6 mice on HFD were orally administered with vitamin D supplement, Lentinula edodes (LE) mushrooms extract, or vitamin D-enriched mushrooms extract for 25 weeks. Mice were studied for the effect of the treatment on the immune system, liver functions and histology, insulin resistance and lipid profile.


          Treatment with vitamin D-enriched LE extract s was associated with significant attenuation of the rate of total body fat accumulation, along with a decrease in hepatic fat content as measured by an EchoMRI. Significant alleviation of liver damage manifested by a marked decrease in ALT, and AST serum levels (from 900 and 1021 U/L in the control group to 313 and 340; 294 and 292; and 366 and 321 U/L for ALT and AST, in Vit D, LE and LE + Vit D treated groups, respectively). A corresponding effect on hepatocyte ballooning were also noted. A significant decrease in serum triglycerides (from 103 to 75, 69 and 72 mg/dL), total cholesterol (from 267 to 160, 157 and 184 mg/dL), and LDL cholesterol (from 193 mg/dL to 133, 115 and 124 mg/dL) along with an increase in the HDL/LDL ratio, and improved glucose levels were documented. These beneficial effects were associated with a systemic immunomodulatory effect associated with an increased CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio (from 1.38 in the control group to 1.69, 1.71 and 1.63), and a pro- to an anti-inflammatory cytokine shift.


          Oral administration of vitamin-D enriched mushrooms extracts exerts an immune modulatory hepato-protective effect in NASH model.

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          NLRP3 inflammasome activation is required for fibrosis development in NAFLD.

          NLR inflammasomes, caspase 1 activation platforms critical for processing key pro-inflammatory cytokines, have been implicated in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). As the direct role of the NLRP3 inflammasome remains unclear, we tested effects of persistent NLRP3 activation as a contributor to NAFLD development and, in particular, as a modulator of progression from benign hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis during diet-induced NAFLD. Gain of function tamoxifen-inducible Nlrp3 knock-in mice allowing for in vivo temporal control of NLRP3 activation and loss of function Nlrp3 knockout mice were placed on short-term choline-deficient amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet, to induce isolated hepatic steatosis or long-term CDAA exposure, to induce severe steatohepatitis and fibrosis, respectively. Expression of NLRP3 associated proteins was assessed in liver biopsies of a well-characterized group of patients with the full spectrum of NAFLD. Nlrp3(-/-) mice were protected from long-term feeding CDAA-induced hepatomegaly, liver injury, and infiltration of activated macrophages. More importantly, Nlrp3(-/-) mice showed marked protection from CDAA-induced liver fibrosis. After 4 weeks on CDAA diet, wild-type (WT) animals showed isolated hepatic steatosis while Nlrp3 knock-in mice showed severe liver inflammation, with increased infiltration of activated macrophages and early signs of liver fibrosis. In the liver samples of patients with NAFLD, inflammasome components were significantly increased in those patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) when compared to those with non-NASH NAFLD with mRNA levels of pro-IL1 beta correlated to levels of COL1A1. Our study uncovers a crucial role for the NLRP3 inflammasome in the development of NAFLD. These findings may lead to novel therapeutic strategies aimed at halting the progression of hepatic steatosis to the more severe forms of this disease. Key message: Mice with NLRP3 inflammasome loss of function are protected from diet-induced steatohepatitis. NLRP3 inflammasome gain of function leads to early and severe onset of diet-induced steatohepatitis in mice. Patients with severe NAFLD exhibit increased levels of NLRP3 inflammasome components and levels of pro-IL1β mRNA correlate with the expression of COL1A1.
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            Transforming growth factor beta signaling in hepatocytes participates in steatohepatitis through regulation of cell death and lipid metabolism in mice.

            Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling activates Smad- and TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-dependent signaling to regulate cell survival, proliferation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis. The effects of TGF-β signaling on metabolic syndrome, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, remain elusive. Wild-type (WT) and hepatocyte-specific TGF-β receptor type II-deficient (Tgfbr2ΔHEP) mice were fed a choline-deficient amino acid (CDAA)-defined diet for 22 weeks to induce NASH. WT mice fed a CDAA diet displayed increased activation of Smad2/3 and had marked lipid accumulation, inflammatory cell infiltration, hepatocyte death, and fibrosis; in comparison, Tgfbr2ΔHEP mice fed a CDAA diet had suppressed liver steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Both palmitate-induced steatotic hepatocytes and hepatocytes isolated from WT mice fed a CDAA diet had increased susceptibility to TGF-β-mediated death. TGF-β-mediated death in steatotic hepatocytes was inhibited by silencing Smad2 or blocking reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and was enhanced by inhibiting TAK1 or nuclear factor kappa B. Increased hepatic steatosis in WT mice fed a CDAA diet was associated with the increased expression of lipogenesis genes (Dgat1 and Srebp1c), whereas the decreased steatosis in Tgfbr2ΔHEP mice was accompanied by the increased expression of genes involved in β-oxidation (Cpt1 and Acox1). In combination with palmitate treatment, TGF-β signaling promoted lipid accumulation with induction of lipogenesis-related genes and suppression of β-oxidation-related genes in hepatocytes. Silencing Smad2 decreased TGF-β-mediated lipid accumulation and corrected altered gene expression related to lipid metabolism in hepatocytes. Finally, we confirmed that livers from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) displayed phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad2/3. TGF-β signaling in hepatocytes contributes to hepatocyte death and lipid accumulation through Smad signaling and ROS production that promote the development of NASH. © 2013 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
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              CXCL10 plays a key role as an inflammatory mediator and a non-invasive biomarker of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

              Perpetuate liver inflammation is crucial in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Expression of CXCL10, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, correlates positively with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether CXCL10 plays a role in NASH was unknown. We aimed to investigate the functional and clinical impact of CXCL10 in NASH. Cxcl10 gene-deleted (Cxcl10(-/-)) and C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice were fed a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 4 or 8 weeks. In other experiments, we injected neutralizing anti-CXCL10 mAb into MCD-fed WT mice. Human serum was obtained from 147 patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and 73 control subjects. WT mice, fed the MCD diet, developed steatohepatitis with higher hepatic CXCL10 expression. Cxcl10(-/-) mice were refractory to MCD-induced steatohepatitis. We further revealed that CXCL10 was associated with the induction of important pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1) and activation of the NF-κB pathway. CXCL10 was linked to steatosis through upregulation of the lipogenic factors SREBP-1c and LXR, and also to oxidative stress (upregulation of CYP2E1 and C/EBPβ). Blockade of CXCL10 protected against hepatocyte injury in vitro and against steatohepatitis development in mice. We further investigated the clinical impact of CXCL10 and found circulating and hepatic CXCL10 levels were significantly higher in human NASH. Importantly, the circulating CXCL10 level was correlated with the degree of lobular inflammation and was an independent risk factor for NASH patients. We demonstrate for the first time that CXCL10 plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of experimental steatohepatitis. CXCL10 maybe a potential non-invasive biomarker for NASH patients. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                972-2-6778231 , ilan@hadassah.org.il
                BMC Gastroenterol
                BMC Gastroenterol
                BMC Gastroenterology
                BioMed Central (London )
                28 November 2017
                28 November 2017
                : 17
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2221 2926, GRID grid.17788.31, Gastroenterology and Liver Units, Department of Medicine, , Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, ; P.O.B 12000, -91120 Jerusalem, IL Israel
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0404 5732, GRID grid.425662.1, Migal, Galilee Research Institute, ; Kiryat Shmona, Israel
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0538, GRID grid.9619.7, Obesity and Metabolism Laboratory, The Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, , The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, ; Jerusalem, Israel
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2017

                Gastroenterology & Hepatology

                vitamin d, lentinula edodes, shiitake, nash


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