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      X-ray Residual Stress Analysis of Nitrided Low Alloyed Steels Translated title: Röntgenographische Eigenspannungsanalyse in nitrierten niedrig legierten Stählen

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          Abstract

          Residual stress analyses were performed on nitrided, low alloy steels by varying the measuring conditions. The measurements were carried out in the compound layer on ∊-Fe 2–3N and γ′-Fe 4N as well as in the diffusion layer on α-Fe. By considering different criteria, tensile residual stresses of up to 300 MPa produced, {111}-interference, for ∊-Fe 2–3N using CuKα radiation on the specimen's surface. After removing 5 μm from the surface, compressive residual stresses occur in this phase. On employing the CrKα and CuKα radiation, relatively high compressive stresses are obtained of up to above −1000 MPa for γ′-Fe 4N. For measurements using CrKα radiation, compressive residual stresses result in the diffusion layer for α-Fe, which have a maximum value below the surface. Here, the measurements of the {211}-interference give lower residual stress magnitudes than measurements of the {110}- and {200}-interferences. By verifying the phase superpositions, the linear distributions of line positions or the comparable loading stress analysis using XRD or strain gauges, the results determined at the {211}-interference appear to be realistic. Attention should be paid to the high penetration depth of CrKα radiation. Here, no gradients of the investigated stress states may exist which are too large. The steel possessing a higher content of nitride forming elements such as Al, for example, mainly exhibit the highest compressive residual stresses. In the diffusion layer of 34CrAlNi7-10, maximum compressive residual stresses of −800 MPa result at {211}-interference in α-Fe.

          Kurzfassung

          Unter Variation der Messbedingungen erfolgen Eigenspannungsanalysen an nitrierten, niedrig legierten Stählen. Gemessen wird in der Verbindungsschicht an ∊-Fe 2–3N und γ‘-Fe 4N sowie in der Diffusionsschicht am α-Fe. Bei Beachtung verschiedener Kriterien erhält man mit CuKα-Strahlung an der Probenoberfläche bei dem ∊-Fe 2–3N Zugeigenspannungen bis etwa 300 MPa, {111}-Interferenz. Nach Abtrag von 5 μm treten Druckeigenspannungen in dieser Phase auf. In γ‘-Fe 4N werden relativ hohe Druckeigenspannungen bis über −1000 MPa bei Anwendung von CrKα- und CuKα-Strahlung erhalten. In der Diffusionsschicht ergeben sich bei Messung mit CrKα-Strahlung an α-Fe Druckeigenspannungen mit einem betragsmäßigen Maximum unter der Oberfläche. Dabei liefern die Messungen von der {211}-Interferenz geringere Eigenspannungsbeträge als Messungen der {110}- und {200}-Interferenz. Überprüfungen von Phasenüberlagerungen, linearer Linienlageverteilung oder vergleichende Lastspannungsanalysen mittels XRD bzw. Dehnungsmessstreifen, lassen die an der {211}-Interferenz bestimmten Ergebnisse realistisch erscheinen. Bei CrKα-Strahlung ist deren hohe Eindringtiefe zu beachten. Es dürfen dabei keine zu großen Gradienten der untersuchten Zustände vorliegen. Der Stahl mit dem höheren Gehalt an nitridbildenden Elementen, wie z.B. Al weist meist die höchsten Druckeigenspannungsbeträge auf. In der Diffusionsschicht des 34CrAlNi7-10 ergeben sich an der {211}-Interferenz von α-Fe maximale Druckeigenspannungen von −800 MPa.

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          Most cited references25

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          Effect of ion nitriding on fatigue behaviour of AISI 4140 steel

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            Röntgenographische Untersuchung von Spannungszuständen in Werkstoffen. Teil III. Fortsetzung von Matwiss. und Werkstofftechn. Heft 3/1995, S. 148-160 und Heft 4/1995, S. 199-216

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              Microstructure and residual stresses of a plasma-nitrided M2 tool steel

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                mp
                Materials Testing
                Carl Hanser Verlag
                0025-5300
                2195-8572
                2012
                : 54
                : 6
                : 395-407
                Affiliations
                1 Kaiserslautern, Germany
                2 Hallein, Austria
                Author notes

                Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Ernst Hoffmann, born 1953, studied Mechanical Engineering at the University of Karlsruhe (TH). From 1979 to 1984 he studied and received his doctorate at the Institute for Materials Science I. At the company Robert Bosch GmbH he worked as a group leader on the development of electronic fuel pumps. In 1988 he was appointed to a chair at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern in the Department of Materials Science.

                Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Marouan Zgani, born 1986 in Morocco, studied Mechanical Engineering at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern. He extended his education with a Master Degree in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern and at the Tokyo Metropolitan University.

                Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Dirk Scholz, born 1979, studied Mechanical Engineering at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern. He is employed at the Testing and Certification Organisation Pfalz (TÜV) in Ludwigshafen, Germany.

                Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Margit Altendorfer, born 1955, studied textile engineering at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern. She works currently as a research associate in the field of X-ray diffraction analysis at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern.

                Prof. Dr.-Ing. Helmut Clemens, born 1950, studied Mechanical Engineering at the University of Karlsruhe (TH). From 1978 to 1983 he studied and received his doctorate at the Institute of Engineering Mechanics. Thereafter he worked as technical expert at the Testing and Certification Organisation Pfalz (TÜV). In 1986 he was appointed to a chair at the University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern in the Department of Engineering Mechanics.

                Dr.-Ing. Ralf Kübler, born 1968, studied Mechanical Engineering at the University of Karlsruhe (TH). From 1996 to 2000 he studied and received his doctorate at the Institute for Materials Science I. He works as a scientific expert at Robert Bosch GmbH in Stuttgart since 2000. Now he works as a group leader in the production of high pressure diesel injection systems.

                Article
                MP110344
                10.3139/120.110344
                3a5391e3-781c-4f19-af9c-cf06b3bf6894
                © 2012, Carl Hanser Verlag, München
                History
                Page count
                References: 48, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Fachbeiträge/Technical Contributions

                Materials technology,Materials characterization,Materials science
                Materials technology, Materials characterization, Materials science

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