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      Chelerythrine Attenuates the Inflammation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Inflammation Through NF-κB Signaling Pathway Mediated by Nrf2


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          Chelerythrine (CH), is a kind of benzo[c] phenanthridine alkaloid isolated from plants such as Chelidonium, with pharmacological activities as antitumor, antibiosis and anti-inflammation. However, few studies have demonstrated whether CH could protect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI), and the underlying mechanism is also uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of CH on LPS-induced ALI in mice and in RAW264.7 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with CH significantly ameliorated LPS-induced pathological changes in the lung. CH also attenuated LPS-induced W/D ratio, inflammatory cell infiltration. Meanwhile, LPS-induced Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) production and oxidative stress were markedly suppressed by CH. Furthermore, western blot showed that CH suppressed LPS-stimulated inflammation of RAW264.7 cells through activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway. Knocking down of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) led to the reduction of nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65, which triggered inflammation. These experimental results provided evidence that CH could be a potential therapeutic candidate for the intervention of ALI caused by LPS.

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          Exercise and IL-6 infusion inhibit endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha production in humans.

          During "nondamaging" exercise, skeletal muscle markedly releases interleukin (IL)-6, and it has been suggested that one biological role of this phenomenon is to inhibit the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha, which is known to cause pathogenesis such as insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments in which eight healthy males either rested (CON), rode a bicycle for 3 h (EX), or were infused with recombinant human IL-6 (rhIL-6) for 3 h while they rested. After 2.5 h, the volunteers received a bolus of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (0.06 ng/kg) i.v. to induce low-grade inflammation. In CON, plasma TNF-alpha increased significantly in response to endotoxin. In contrast, during EX, which resulted in elevated IL-6, and rhIL-6, the endotoxin-induced increase in TNF-alpha was totally attenuated. In conclusion, physical exercise and rhIL-6 infusion at physiological concentrations inhibit endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha production in humans. Hence, these data provide the first experimental evidence that physical activity mediates antiinflammatory activity and suggest that the mechanism include IL-6, which is produced by and released from exercising muscles.
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            Clinical trials in acute respiratory distress syndrome: challenges and opportunities.

            This year is the 50th anniversary of the first description of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since then, much has been learned about the pathogenesis of lung injury in ARDS, with an emphasis on the mechanisms of injury to the lung endothelium and the alveolar epithelium. In terms of treatment, major progress has been made in reducing mortality from ARDS with lung-protective ventilation, using a tidal volume of 6 mL per kg of predicted bodyweight and a plateau airway pressure of less than 30 cm H2O. In more severely hypoxaemic patients with ARDS, neuromuscular blockade and prone positioning have further reduced mortality, probably by extending the therapeutic effects of lung protective ventilation. Fluid-conservative therapy has also increased ventilator-free days in patients with ARDS. The lack of success of pharmacological therapies for ARDS, however, presents a continued challenge in the field. In addition to presenting a brief summary of previous experience with clinical trials in ARDS, we focus in this Review on future opportunities to improve clinical trial design to maximise the likelihood of identifying beneficial pharmacological therapies. In view of the heterogeneity in ARDS, both prognostic and predictive enrichment strategies are needed that target therapies toward specific subgroups of patients with ARDS on the basis of both severity and biology. Approaches to reducing heterogeneity in ARDS clinical trials include using physiological, radiographic, and biological criteria to select patients for both phase 2 and 3 trials. Additionally, interest is growing in the design of preventive clinical trials in ARDS and to initiate early treatment of patients with acute lung injury before the need for endotracheal intubation. We also present promising new approaches to treating ARDS, including combination therapies, cell-based therapies, and generic pharmacological compounds with low-risk profiles that are already in routine clinical use for other clinical indications.
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              Effects of acteoside on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in acute lung injury via regulation of NF-κB pathway in vivo and in vitro.

              The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective role of acteoside (AC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). BalB/c mice intraperitoneally received AC (30, and 60 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) 2h prior to or after intratracheal instillation of LPS. Treatment with AC significantly decreased lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and ameliorated LPS-induced lung histopathological changes. In addition, AC increased super oxide dismutase (SOD) level and inhibited malondialdehyde (MDA) content, total cell and neutrophil infiltrations, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in LPS-stimulated mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AC inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase-α (IKK-α) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase-β (IKKβ) in LPS-induced inflammation in A549 cells. Our data suggested that LPS evoked the inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells A549. The experimental results indicated that the protective mechanism of AC might be attributed partly to the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production and NF-κB activation.

                Author and article information

                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                26 September 2018
                : 9
                [1] 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine , Nanjing, China
                [2] 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Nanjing General Hospital/Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University , Nanjing, China
                [3] 3School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Medical University , Dongguan, China
                [4] 4Center for Translational Systems Biology and Neuroscience, School of Basic Biomedical Science, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine , Nanjing, China
                [5] 5College of Pharmacy, Ningxia Medical University , Yinchuan, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Suresh Kumar, Putra Malaysia University, Malaysia

                Reviewed by: Rajasekaran Subbiah, Anna University BIT-Campus, India; Luigi Menghini, Università degli Studi “G. d’Annunzio” Chieti - Pescara, Italy

                *Correspondence: Hanqing Wang, hqwangnx@ 123456tom.com
                These authors have contributed equally to this work

                This article was submitted to Ethnopharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

                Copyright © 2018 Fan, Fan, Liu, Tao, Shan, Dong, Li, Zhang and Wang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 35, Pages: 10, Words: 0
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 81603141
                Award ID: 81460645
                Award ID: 81603227
                Award ID: 81503465
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province 10.13039/501100003453
                Award ID: 2015A030310263
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                chelerythrine, inflammation, lps, ali, nf-κb, nrf2


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