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      Antioxidants and antioxidant methods: an updated overview

      Archives of Toxicology

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Flavonoids as antioxidants.

          Flavonoids are phenolic substances isolated from a wide range of vascular plants, with over 8000 individual compounds known. They act in plants as antioxidants, antimicrobials, photoreceptors, visual attractors, feeding repellants, and for light screening. Many studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit biological activities, including antiallergenic, antiviral, antiinflammatory, and vasodilating actions. However, most interest has been devoted to the antioxidant activity of flavonoids, which is due to their ability to reduce free radical formation and to scavenge free radicals. The capacity of flavonoids to act as antioxidants in vitro has been the subject of several studies in the past years, and important structure-activity relationships of the antioxidant activity have been established. The antioxidant efficacy of flavonoids in vivo is less documented, presumably because of the limited knowledge on their uptake in humans. Most ingested flavonoids are extensively degraded to various phenolic acids, some of which still possess a radical-scavenging ability. Both the absorbed flavonoids and their metabolites may display an in vivo antioxidant activity, which is evidenced experimentally by the increase of the plasma antioxidant status, the sparing effect on vitamin E of erythrocyte membranes and low-density lipoproteins, and the preservation of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids. This review presents the current knowledge on structural aspects and in vitro antioxidant capacity of most common flavonoids as well as in vivo antioxidant activity and effects on endogenous antioxidants.
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            Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity

            LWT - Food Science and Technology, 28(1), 25-30
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              A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates.

              1. A new method has been developed for measuring the total antioxidant capacity of body fluids and drug solutions, based on the absorbance of the ABTS.+ radical cation. 2. An automated method for use on a centrifugal analyser, as well as a manual method, is described. 3. The procedure has been applied to physiological antioxidant compounds and radical-scavenging drugs, and an antioxidant ranking was established based on their reactivity relative to a 1.0 mmol/l Trolox standard. 4. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of plasma from an adult reference population has been measured, and the method optimized and validated. 5. The method has been applied to investigate the total plasma antioxidant capacity of neonates and how this may be compromised in prematurity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Archives of Toxicology
                Arch Toxicol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0340-5761
                1432-0738
                March 2020
                March 16 2020
                March 2020
                : 94
                : 3
                : 651-715
                Article
                10.1007/s00204-020-02689-3
                © 2020

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