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      Murine adult neural progenitor cells alter their proliferative behavior and gene expression after the activation of toll-like-receptor 3

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          Viral infections during pregnancy significantly increase the risk for psychological pathologies like schizophrenia in the offspring. One of the main morphological hallmarks of schizophrenia is a reduced size of the hippocampus. Since new neurons are produced in this particular brain compartment throughout life, it might be possible that low neurogenesis levels triggered by a maternal viral infection contribute to developmental deficits of the hippocampus. We injected polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) in pregnant C57Bl/6 mice to stimulate an anti-viral response through TLR3 and examined gene expressions in the neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) of the offspring at different ages. Additionally, we treated adult NPC lines with Poly I:C to investigate its direct effect. We could show for the first time that TLR3 and its downstream effector molecule IRF3 are expressed in adult NPCs. Poly I:C treatment in vitro and in vivo led to the regulation of proliferation and genes involved in antiviral response, migration, and survival. These findings indicate that NPCs of the fetus are able to react towards an in utero immune response, and thus, changes in the neuronal stem cell pool can contribute to the development of neurological diseases like schizophrenia.

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          Most cited references39

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          Milestones of neuronal development in the adult hippocampus.

          Adult hippocampal neurogenesis originates from precursor cells in the adult dentate gyrus and results in new granule cell neurons. We propose a model of the development that takes place between these two fixed points and identify several developmental milestones. From a presumably bipotent radial-glia-like stem cell (type-1 cell) with astrocytic properties, development progresses over at least two stages of amplifying lineage-determined progenitor cells (type-2 and type-3 cells) to early postmitotic and to mature neurons. The selection process, during which new neurons are recruited into function, and other regulatory influences differentially affect the different stages of development.
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            Toll-like receptor and RIG-I-like receptor signaling.

            Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) constitute distinct families of pattern-recognition receptors that sense nucleic acids derived from viruses and trigger antiviral innate immune responses. TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 are membrane proteins localized to the endosome that recognize viral double-stranded RNA, single-stranded RNA, and DNA, respectively, while RLRs, including RIG-I, Mda5, and LGP2, are cytoplasmic proteins that recognize viral RNA. Upon recognition of these nucleic acid species, TLRs and RLRs recruit specific intracellular adaptor proteins to initiate signaling pathways culminating in activation of NF-kappaB, MAP kinases, and IRFs that control the transcription of genes encoding type I interferon and other inflammatory cytokines, which are important for eliminating viruses. Here, we review recent insights into the signaling pathways initiated by TLR and RLR and their roles in innate and adaptive immune responses.
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              NF-kappaB controls cell growth and differentiation through transcriptional regulation of cyclin D1.

              Accumulating evidence implicates the transcription factor NF-kappaB as a positive mediator of cell growth, but the molecular mechanism(s) involved in this process remains largely unknown. Here we use both a skeletal muscle differentiation model and normal diploid fibroblasts to gain insight into how NF-kappaB regulates cell growth and differentiation. Results obtained with the C2C12 myoblast cell line demonstrate that NF-kappaB functions as an inhibitor of myogenic differentiation. Myoblasts generated to lack NF-kappaB activity displayed defects in cellular proliferation and cell cycle exit upon differentiation. An analysis of cell cycle markers revealed that NF-kappaB activates cyclin D1 expression, and the results showed that this regulatory pathway is one mechanism by which NF-kappaB inhibits myogenesis. NF-kappaB regulation of cyclin D1 occurs at the transcriptional level and is mediated by direct binding of NF-kappaB to multiple sites in the cyclin D1 promoter. Using diploid fibroblasts, we demonstrate that NF-kappaB is required to induce cyclin D1 expression and pRb hyperphosphorylation and promote G(1)-to-S progression. Consistent with results obtained with the C2C12 differentiation model, we show that NF-kappaB also promotes cell growth in embryonic fibroblasts, correlating with its regulation of cyclin D1. These data therefore identify cyclin D1 as an important transcriptional target of NF-kappaB and reveal a mechanism to explain how NF-kappaB is involved in the early phases of the cell cycle to regulate cell growth and differentiation.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                1 September 2012
                : 2
                : 3
                : 239-248
                [ 1 ] Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
                [ 2 ] Cellular Neurosciences, Max-Delbrueck-Center of Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany
                [ 3 ] ZMB, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
                [ 4 ] Cellular Neurosciences, Max-Delbrueck-Center of Molecular Medicine, Robert-Roessle-Str. 10, D-13125, Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ] +49-30-940-63260, +49-30-940-65018, Susanne.wolf@ 123456mdc-berlin.de
                Original Articles

                Medicine,Immunology,Health & Social care,Microbiology & Virology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                schizophrenia,adult neurogenesis, in utero viral infection,TLR3,neuronal progenitor cells


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