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      In-hospital resuscitation: opioids and other factors influencing survival

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          Abstract

          Purpose:

          “Code Blue” is a standard term used to alertt hospital staff that a patient requires resuscitation. This study determined rates of survival from Code Blue events and the role of opioids and other factors on survival.

          Methods:

          Data derived from medical records and the Code Blue and Pharmacy databases were analyzed for factors affecting survival.

          Results:

          During 2006, rates of survival from the code only and to discharge were 25.9% and 26.4%, respectively, for Code Blue events involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; N = 216). Survival rates for events not ultimately requiring CPR (N = 77) were higher, with 32.5% surviving the code only and 62.3% surviving to discharge. For CPR events, rates of survival to discharge correlated inversely with time to chest compressions and defibrillation, precipitating event, need for airway management, location and age. Time of week, witnessing, postoperative status, gender and opioid use did not influence survival rates. For non-CPR events, opioid use was associated with decreased survival. Survival rates were lowest for patients receiving continuous infusions ( P < 0.01) or iv boluses of opioids ( P < 0.05).

          Conclusions:

          One-quarter of patients survive to discharge after a CPR Code Blue event and two-thirds survive to discharge after a non-CPR event. Opioids may influence survival from non-CPR events.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Ther Clin Risk Manag
          Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
          Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
          Dove Medical Press
          1176-6336
          1178-203X
          2009
          2009
          29 December 2009
          : 5
          : 961-968
          Affiliations
          [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
          [2 ]Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
          Author notes
          Correspondence: Karamarie Fecho Department of Anesthesiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7010, USA, Tel +1 (919)-966-1470, Fax +1 (919)-966-4873, Email kfecho@ 123456aims.unc.edu
          Article
          tcrm-5-961
          2801589
          20057895
          © 2009 Fecho et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

          This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

          Categories
          Original Research

          Medicine

          patient safety, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, opioids, cardiac arrest, survival, code blue

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