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      Levels of Stromal Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) and Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) and Very Small Embryonic-Like Cells (VSEL) in Ischemic Stroke Patients

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          BDNF and 5-HT: a dynamic duo in age-related neuronal plasticity and neurodegenerative disorders.

          Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) are known to regulate synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis and neuronal survival in the adult brain. These two signals co-regulate one another such that 5-HT stimulates the expression of BDNF, and BDNF enhances the growth and survival of 5-HT neurons. Impaired 5-HT and BDNF signaling is central to depression and anxiety disorders, but could also play important roles in the pathogenesis of several age-related disorders, including insulin resistance syndrome, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Enhancement of BDNF signaling may be a key mechanism whereby cognitive stimulation, exercise, dietary restriction and antidepressant drugs preserve brain function during aging. Behavioral and pharmacological manipulations that enhance 5-HT and BDNF signaling could help promote healthy brain aging.
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            Brain-derived neurotrophic factor contributes to recovery of skilled reaching after focal ischemia in rats.

            Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and neuroplasticity. Further, exogenous treatment with BDNF or exposing animals to enrichment and exercise regimens, which also increase BDNF, enhances behavioral recovery after brain injury. Thus, the beneficial effects of rehabilitation in promoting recovery after stroke may also depend on BDNF. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the contribution of BDNF to motor skill relearning after endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Antisense BDNF oligonucleotide, which blocks the expression of BDNF (or saline vehicle) was infused into the contralateral lateral ventricle for 28 days after ischemia. Animals received either a graduated rehabilitation program, including running exercise and skilled reaching training, which simulates clinical practice, or no rehabilitation. Functional recovery was assessed with a battery of tests that measured skilled reaching, forelimb use asymmetry, and foraging ability. Rehabilitation significantly improved skilled reaching ability in the staircase task. Antisense BDNF oligonucleotide effectively blocked BDNF mRNA, and negated the beneficial effects of rehabilitation on recovery of skilled reaching. Importantly, antisense BDNF oligonucleotide did not affect reaching with the unaffected limb, body weight, infarct size, or foraging ability, indicating the treatment was specific to relearning of motor skill after ischemia. This study is the first to identify a critical role for BDNF in rehabilitation-induced recovery after stroke, and our results suggest that new treatments to enhance BDNF would constitute a promising therapy for promoting recovery of function after stroke.
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              Clinical evidence that very small embryonic-like stem cells are mobilized into peripheral blood in patients after stroke.

              In a murine model of stroke, we identified a population of very small embryonic-like (VSEL) stem cells (SCs) in adult murine bone marrow that could be mobilized into peripheral blood (PB). This raised the question of whether a similar population of cells is mobilized in human stroke patients. We evaluated a number of cells that corresponded to VSEL SCs in the PB of 44 stroke patients and 22 age-matched controls. After each patient's stroke, PB samples were harvested during the first 24 hours, on day +3, and on day +7 and then compared with normal controls. The circulating human cells with the phenotype of VSEL SCs were evaluated in PB by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and direct immunofluorescence staining. In parallel, we also measured the serum concentration of stromal derived factor-1 by ELISA. In stroke patients, we found an increase in the number of circulating cells expressing SC-associated antigens, such as CD133, CD34, and CXCR4. More important, we found an increase in the number of circulating primitive cells expressing the VSEL phenotype (CXCR4(+)lin(-)CD45(-) small cells), mRNA for Octamer-4 and Nanog, and Octamer-4 protein. All changes were accompanied by an increased serum concentration of stromal derived factor-1. Additionally, we found a positive correlation between stroke extensiveness, stromal derived factor-1 concentration in serum, and the number of CXCR4(+) VSEL SCs circulating in the PB. We conclude that stroke triggers the mobilization of CXCR4(+) VSEL SCs that have potential prognostic value in stroke patients. However, the potential role of these mobilized cells in brain regeneration requires further study.

                Author and article information

                International Journal of Translational Science
                River Publishers
                : 2016
                : 1
                : 61-70
                [1 ]Postgraduate Program in Clinical Biochemistry, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
                [2 ]Prodia Stemcell Indonesia
                [3 ]Prodia Clinical Laboratory
                [4 ]National University of Singapore
                © 2016

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/


                Engineering,Materials science
                Engineering, Materials science


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