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      mRNA Study on Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase Induction by Hemodialysis Treatment

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: There is little or no controversy about the increased oxidative stress of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Several reports show that the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), one of the major endogenous antioxidant enzymes, in plasma is elevated among HD patients. It is still unclear, however, whether this elevation is due to the promotion of SOD production or a decrease in renal excretion of SOD. This study was designed to investigate the cause of the SOD activation in HD patients, and we examined the expression of SOD mRNA levels in leukocytes of patients with chronic renal failure. Methods: The total plasma SOD activity was determined by the nitroblue tetrazolium method, plasma SOD contents by ELISA, and SOD mRNA levels in leukocytes by RT-PCR. Results: Our results demonstrated that contents and mRNA levels of Cu/Zn SOD in HD patients are 4.4 times and 2.0 times, respectively, as large as those in healthy controls. Furthermore, in contrast to nondialyzed chronic renal failure patients, we observed higher concentrations of Cu/Zn SOD in plasma and a more enhanced mRNA expression of Cu/Zn SOD in leukocytes of HD patients. Conclusion: Increased Cu/Zn SOD mRNA reflects enhanced antioxidant capacity of leukocytes and can be a promising oxidative stress marker in HD patients.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Accelerated atherosclerosis in prolonged maintenance hemodialysis.

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            Antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation in human blood plasma.

             James Ames,  B Frei,  R Stocker (1988)
            The temporal disappearance in human blood plasma of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the appearance of various classes of lipid hydroperoxides measured by HPLC postcolumn chemiluminescence detection has been investigated under two types of oxidizing conditions. Exposure of plasma to aqueous peroxyl radicals generated at a constant rate leads immediately to oxidation of endogenous ascorbate and sulfhydryl groups, followed by sequential depletion of bilirubin, urate, and alpha-tocopherol. Stimulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes in plasma initiates very rapid oxidation of ascorbate, followed by partial depletion of urate. Once ascorbate is consumed completely, micromolar concentrations of hydroperoxides of plasma phospholipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters appear simultaneously, even though sulfhydryl groups, bilirubin, urate, and alpha-tocopherol are still present at high concentrations. Nonesterified fatty acids, the only lipid class in plasma not transported in lipoproteins but bound to albumin, are preserved from peroxidative damage even after complete oxidation of ascorbate, most likely due to site-specific antioxidant protection by albumin-bound bilirubin and possibly by albumin itself. Thus, in plasma ascorbate and, in a site-specific manner, bilirubin appear to be much more effective in protecting lipids from peroxidative damage by aqueous oxidants than all the other endogenous antioxidants. Hydroperoxides of linoleic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol added to plasma in the absence of added reducing substrates are degraded, in contrast to hydroperoxides of trilinolein and cholesterol linoleate. These findings indicate the presence of a selective peroxidase activity operative under physiological conditions. Our data suggest that in states of leukocyte activation and other types of acute or chronic oxidative stress such a simple regimen as controlled ascorbate supplementation could prove helpful in preventing formation of lipid hydroperoxides, some of which cannot be detoxified by endogenous plasma activities and thus might cause damage to critical targets.
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              Extracellular superoxide dismutase in human tissues and human cell lines.

               S Marklund (1984)
              Extracellular-superoxide dismutase is a tetrameric copper-containing glycoprotein that previously has been demonstrated to be the major superoxide dismutase of human extracellular fluids. The occurrence of this enzyme in various human tissues that were removed from two accidental death victims and in 19 different human cultured cell lines was determined. All investigated tissues were found to contain extracellular-superoxide dismutase. There was a larger variation between tissues in the concentration of this enzyme than in CuZn superoxide dismutase and Mn superoxide dismutase. No relation could be demonstrated between the content of extracellular-superoxide dismutase and the content of the other superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in the various tissues. In uterus there was more extracellular-superoxide dismutase than Mn superoxide dismutase, but in all other tissues the content of extracellular-superoxide dismutase was lower than the content of the other isoenzymes. The concentration of extracellular-superoxide dismutase was higher in all investigated human tissues than in human plasma. 19 human cultured cell lines were found to be devoid of or to contain very little extracellular-superoxide dismutase. Most tissues contained more extracellular-superoxide dismutase than did the investigated cell lines.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2005
                April 2005
                15 February 2005
                : 99
                : 4
                : c107-c114
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Showa University, Tokyo, and bSaiyu Soka Hospital, Saitama, Japan
                Article
                83928 Nephron Clin Pract 2005;99:c107–c114
                10.1159/000083928
                15711098
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 34, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/83928
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