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      Sesquiterpenes-Rich Essential Oil from Above Ground Parts of Pulicaria somalensis Exhibited Antioxidant Activity and Allelopathic Effect on Weeds

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      Agronomy
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Pulicaria genus (fleabane) is characterized by its fragrant odor due to the presence of essential oil (EO). According to the literature reviews, the EO of Pulicaria somalensis O.Hoffm. (Shie) is still unexplored. For the first time, 71 compounds were characterized in EO derived from above-ground parts of P. somalensis collected from Saudi Arabia. Sesquiterpenes represented the main components (91.8%), along with minor amounts of mono-, diterpenes, and hydrocarbons. Juniper camphor (24.7%), α-sinensal (7.7%), 6-epi-shyobunol (6.6%), α-zingiberene (5.8%), α-bisabolol (5.3%), and T-muurolol (4.7%) were characterized as main constituents. The correlation analysis between different Pulicaria species showed that P. somalensis has a specific chemical pattern of the EO, thereby no correlation was observed with other reported Pulicaria species. The EO showed significant allelopathic activity against the weeds of Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. (crowfoot grass) and Bidens pilosa L. (hairy beggarticks). The IC50 value on the germination of D. aegyptium was double that of B. pilosa. The IC50 values on the root growth of B. pilosa and D. aegyptium were 0.6 mg mL−1 each, while the shoot growths were 1.0 and 0.7 mg mL−1, respectively. This variation in the activity could be attributed to the genetic characteristics of the weeds. Moreover, the EO exhibited significant antioxidant effects compared to ascorbic acid. Further studies are necessary to verify if these biological activities of the EO could be attributable to its major compounds.

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          Phytochemical analysis of the essential oil from aerial parts of Pulicaria undulata (L.) Kostel from Sudan

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            Phenolic constituents of Pulicaria undulata (L.) C.A. Mey. sub sp. undulata (Asteraceae): Antioxidant protective effects and chemosystematic significances

            One new naturally isoflavone compound, 5,7,2′,3′,4′ penta hydroxyl isoflavone-4′- O -β-glucopyranoside (1) was isolated from the aqueous methanol extract (AME) of Pulicaria undulata subsp. undulata , together with seven known compounds: kaempferol (2), kaempferol 3- O -β-glucoside (3), quercetin (4), quercetin 3- O -β-glucoside (5), quercetin 3- O -β-galactoside (6), quercetin 3,7-di OCH 3 (7), and caffeic acid (8). Their structures were established through chemical (acid hydrolysis) and spectral analysis (UV, NMR, and ESIM). The AME and some isolated compounds were evaluated as protective agents. Free radical scavenging using a microscaled 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay was used to assess the direct antioxidant properties that were evaluated by the ability to protect murine Hepa1c1c7 liver cells against damage induced by the organic peroxide tert-butyl hydroperoxide. The neutral red uptake assay (NRU) was used to record the activity. Results of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay recorded differential scavenging properties in ascending order: 5,7,2′,3′,4′ penta hydroxyl isoflavone-4′-O-β-glucopyranoside > quercetin > quercetin 3- O -galactoside > caffeic acid > quercetin 3,7-di-OCH 3 > kaempferol with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 3.9 μM, 7.5 μM, 11.4 μM, 12.2 μM, 78.1 μM, and 252.3 μM, respectively. The antioxidative potential reveals the potency of AME, quercetin, and quercetin 3,7-di-OCH 3 . The latter compound showed full protection at 100 μM (33 μg/mL) against the induced toxicant effect where the 50% effective concentration was calculated as 33.6 ± 1.7 μM (11.1 μg/mL). In addition to quercetin, which was extensively shown previously as a cytoprotective agent, AME was less potent; it was capable of protecting 75% at 100 μg/mL with 50% effective concentration of 92.3 ± 4 μg/mL. Moreover, the isolated flavonoids were found to be significantly chemosystematic markers.
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              Essential oil composition of Pulicaria undulata (L.) DC.(Asteraceae) growing in Algeria

              Boumaraf (2016)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                ABSGGL
                Agronomy
                Agronomy
                MDPI AG
                2073-4395
                March 2020
                March 14 2020
                : 10
                : 3
                : 399
                Article
                10.3390/agronomy10030399
                3a74b7b1-37f7-4575-9e0e-50e258f9dbd9
                © 2020

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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