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      Exploring the Active Compounds of Traditional Mongolian Medicine Baolier Capsule (BLEC) in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Based on Network Pharmacology Analysis, Molecular Docking and Experimental Validation


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          Baolier Capsule (BLEC) is a Traditional Mongolian Medicine comprising fifteen herbs. This study aims to illustrate the synergistic mechanism of BLEC in the treatment of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) by using network pharmacology method, molecular docking and experimental validation.


          Searching and screening the active ingredients of different herbs in BLEC and target genes related to CAD in multiple databases. Subsequently, Protein–Protein Interactions Network (PPI-Net), gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment were used to identify the key targets. AutoDock was used to verify the binding ability between the active ingredient and key target through molecular docking. Reverse Transcription-Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to verify the effect of active ingredient of BLEC on the key target gene. Finally, effect of BLEC on the degree of blood lipids and atherosclerosis was validated by animal experiment.


          There are 144 active components and 80 CAD-related targets that are identified in BLEC in the treatment of CAD. What is more, 8 core genes were obtained by clustering and topological analysis of PPI-Net. Further, GO and KEGG analysis showed that fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis are the key pathways for BLEC to treat CAD. These results were validated by molecular docking method. In vitro, active compounds of BLEC (Quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, naringenin, tanshinone IIA, β-carotene, 7-O-methylisomucronulatol, piperine, isorhamnetin and Xyloidone) can inhibit 8 core gene (AKT1, EGFR, FOS, MAPK1, MAPK14, STAT3, TP53 and VEGFA) expression. Moreover, BLEC not only improve blood lipid levels but also inhibit the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-knockout mice.


          Our research first revealed the basic pharmacological effects and related mechanisms of in the treatment of CAD. The predicted results provide some theoretical support for BLEC or its important active ingredients to treat CAD.

          Most cited references54

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          The STRING database in 2021: customizable protein–protein networks, and functional characterization of user-uploaded gene/measurement sets

          Abstract Cellular life depends on a complex web of functional associations between biomolecules. Among these associations, protein–protein interactions are particularly important due to their versatility, specificity and adaptability. The STRING database aims to integrate all known and predicted associations between proteins, including both physical interactions as well as functional associations. To achieve this, STRING collects and scores evidence from a number of sources: (i) automated text mining of the scientific literature, (ii) databases of interaction experiments and annotated complexes/pathways, (iii) computational interaction predictions from co-expression and from conserved genomic context and (iv) systematic transfers of interaction evidence from one organism to another. STRING aims for wide coverage; the upcoming version 11.5 of the resource will contain more than 14 000 organisms. In this update paper, we describe changes to the text-mining system, a new scoring-mode for physical interactions, as well as extensive user interface features for customizing, extending and sharing protein networks. In addition, we describe how to query STRING with genome-wide, experimental data, including the automated detection of enriched functionalities and potential biases in the user's query data. The STRING resource is available online, at https://string-db.org/.
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            Antiinflammatory Therapy with Canakinumab for Atherosclerotic Disease.

            Experimental and clinical data suggest that reducing inflammation without affecting lipid levels may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the inflammatory hypothesis of atherothrombosis has remained unproved.
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              Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

              Summary Background Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. Methods We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year. YLLs were calculated from the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. We used the GBD cause of death database composed of: vital registration (VR) data corrected for under-registration and garbage coding; national and subnational verbal autopsy (VA) studies corrected for garbage coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specific causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes) by location and year. Based on completeness, garbage coding, cause list detail, and time periods covered, we provided an overall data quality rating for each location with scores ranging from 0 stars (worst) to 5 stars (best). We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to generate estimates for each location, year, age, and sex. We assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific deaths in relation to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility, with locations grouped into quintiles by SDI. Relative to GBD 2015, we expanded the GBD cause hierarchy by 18 causes of death for GBD 2016. Findings The quality of available data varied by location. Data quality in 25 countries rated in the highest category (5 stars), while 48, 30, 21, and 44 countries were rated at each of the succeeding data quality levels. Vital registration or verbal autopsy data were not available in 27 countries, resulting in the assignment of a zero value for data quality. Deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represented 72·3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 71·2–73·2) of deaths in 2016 with 19·3% (18·5–20·4) of deaths in that year occurring from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases and a further 8·43% (8·00–8·67) from injuries. Although age-standardised rates of death from NCDs decreased globally between 2006 and 2016, total numbers of these deaths increased; both numbers and age-standardised rates of death from CMNN causes decreased in the decade 2006–16—age-standardised rates of deaths from injuries decreased but total numbers varied little. In 2016, the three leading global causes of death in children under-5 were lower respiratory infections, neonatal preterm birth complications, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma, combined resulting in 1·80 million deaths (95% UI 1·59 million to 1·89 million). Between 1990 and 2016, a profound shift toward deaths at older ages occurred with a 178% (95% UI 176–181) increase in deaths in ages 90–94 years and a 210% (208–212) increase in deaths older than age 95 years. The ten leading causes by rates of age-standardised YLL significantly decreased from 2006 to 2016 (median annualised rate of change was a decrease of 2·89%); the median annualised rate of change for all other causes was lower (a decrease of 1·59%) during the same interval. Globally, the five leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were cardiovascular diseases; diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; neoplasms; neonatal disorders; and HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. At a finer level of disaggregation within cause groupings, the ten leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, road injuries, malaria, neonatal preterm birth complications, HIV/AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of total YLLs in 113 countries for men and 97 countries for women. Comparisons of observed levels of YLLs by countries, relative to the level of YLLs expected on the basis of SDI alone, highlighted distinct regional patterns including the greater than expected level of YLLs from malaria and from HIV/AIDS across sub-Saharan Africa; diabetes mellitus, especially in Oceania; interpersonal violence, notably within Latin America and the Caribbean; and cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, particularly in eastern and central Europe. The level of YLLs from ischaemic heart disease was less than expected in 117 of 195 locations. Other leading causes of YLLs for which YLLs were notably lower than expected included neonatal preterm birth complications in many locations in both south Asia and southeast Asia, and cerebrovascular disease in western Europe. Interpretation The past 37 years have featured declining rates of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases across all quintiles of SDI, with faster than expected gains for many locations relative to their SDI. A global shift towards deaths at older ages suggests success in reducing many causes of early death. YLLs have increased globally for causes such as diabetes mellitus or some neoplasms, and in some locations for causes such as drug use disorders, and conflict and terrorism. Increasing levels of YLLs might reflect outcomes from conditions that required high levels of care but for which effective treatments remain elusive, potentially increasing costs to health systems. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                14 February 2023
                : 17
                : 459-476
                [1 ]Intensive Care Unit, Zhongshan City People’s Hospital , Zhongshan, 528400, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Gynecology, Longyan First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University , Longyan, 36400, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Cardiology, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital , Guangzhou, 510000, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Emergency, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University , Guangzhou, 510000, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]Department of Cardiology, Shandong University Zibo Central Hospital , Zibo, 255000, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kai Guo; Tianxiao Yang, Email guokai@gd2h.org.cn; 18560292819@163.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2023 Wei et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 08 November 2022
                : 28 January 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 11, Tables: 2, References: 54, Pages: 18
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100001809;
                This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81900398).
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                coronary artery disease,baolier capsule,traditional mongolian medicine,network pharmacology,experimental validation


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