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      Efficacy and safety analysis of once per cycle pegfilgrastim and daily lenograstim in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant myelosuppressive chemotherapy FEC 100: a pilot study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Neutropenia is a common toxicity in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. In this prospective pilot study, we compared the efficacy and safety profiles of pegfilgrastim administered subcutaneously once per cycle and lenograstim administered subcutaneously daily six times per cycle, for primary neutropenia prophylaxis in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

          Materials and methods

          Twenty women were enrolled. All patients received epirubicin 100 mg/m 2 with 5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m 2 and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m 2 on day 1 and every 21 days thereafter, according to the FEC 100 chemotherapy regimen. Eight patients received a single dose of pegfilgrastim on day 2, while 12 patients were treated with daily administration of lenograstim from days five to ten. Absolute neutrophil count and duration of grade 3–4 neutropenia were monitored using seriated blood samples. The incidence of bone pain was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS).

          Results

          The incidence of grade 3–4 neutropenia was 75% in patients who received pegfilgrastim, and 25% in patients who received lenograstim. One case of febrile neutropenia was shown in pegfilgrastim patients. The mean duration of grade 3–4 neutropenia was 2 days in pegfilgrastim group versus 1.4 days in the lenograstim group. Bone pain was present in 37.5% of pegfilgrastim patients versus 58.3% of lenograstim patients. The mean duration of bone pain in the pegfilgrastim group was 4 days versus 6 days in the lenograstim group.

          Conclusion

          In our experience, a single injection of pegfilgrastim was less effective for controlling neutropenia than six daily injections of lenograstim. The safety profiles of pegfilgrastim and lenograstim were similar with a lower incidence of bone pain in patients treated with pegfilgrastim.

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          Most cited references 28

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          2006 update of recommendations for the use of white blood cell growth factors: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline.

          To update the 2000 American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline on the use of hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors (CSF). The Update Committee completed a review and analysis of pertinent data published from 1999 through September 2005. Guided by the 1996 ASCO clinical outcomes criteria, the Update Committee formulated recommendations based on improvements in survival, quality of life, toxicity reduction and cost-effectiveness. The 2005 Update Committee agreed unanimously that reduction in febrile neutropenia (FN) is an important clinical outcome that justifies the use of CSFs, regardless of impact on other factors, when the risk of FN is approximately 20% and no other equally effective regimen that does not require CSFs is available. Primary prophylaxis is recommended for the prevention of FN in patients who are at high risk based on age, medical history, disease characteristics, and myelotoxicity of the chemotherapy regimen. CSF use allows a modest to moderate increase in dose-density and/or dose-intensity of chemotherapy regimens. Dose-dense regimens should only be used within an appropriately designed clinical trial or if supported by convincing efficacy data. Prophylactic CSF for patients with diffuse aggressive lymphoma aged 65 years and older treated with curative chemotherapy (CHOP or more aggressive regimens) should be given to reduce the incidence of FN and infections. Current recommendations for the management of patients exposed to lethal doses of total body radiotherapy, but not doses high enough to lead to certain death due to injury to other organs, includes the prompt administration of CSF or pegylated G-CSF.
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            Impact of primary prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on febrile neutropenia and mortality in adult cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a systematic review.

            Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) have demonstrated a significant reduction in febrile neutropenia (FN) after systemic chemotherapy. Several RCTs have been published recently that investigate the impact of G-CSF on mortality and relative dose-intensity (RDI). A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of all reported RCTs comparing primary prophylactic G-CSF with placebo or untreated controls in adult solid tumor and malignant lymphoma patients was undertaken without language restrictions, using electronic databases, conference proceedings, and hand-searching techniques. Two reviewers extracted data independently. Summary estimates of relative risk (RR) with 95% CIs were estimated based on the method of Mantel-Haenszel and DerSimonian and Laird. Seventeen RCTs were identified including 3,493 patients. For infection-related mortality, RR reduction with G-CSF compared with controls was 45% (RR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.90; P = .018); for early mortality (all-cause mortality during chemotherapy period), it was 40% (RR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.83; P = .002); and for FN, it was 46% (RR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.67; P < .001). Average RDI was significantly higher in patients who received G-CSF compared with control patients (P < .001). Bone or musculoskeletal pain was reported in 10.4% of controls and 19.6% of G-CSF patients (RR = 4.03; 95% CI, 2.15 to 7.52; P < .001). Significant reductions in FN with G-CSF were observed in studies allowing secondary G-CSF prophylaxis in controls and in the three trials with concurrent prophylactic antibiotics in both treatment arms. Prophylactic G-CSF reduces the risk of FN and early deaths, including infection-related mortality, while increasing RDI and musculoskeletal pain. There are insufficient data to assess the impact of G-CSF on disease-free and overall survival.
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              Reduction by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor of fever and neutropenia induced by chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer.

              Neutropenia and infection are major dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy. Previous studies have suggested that recombinant methionyl granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can reduce chemotherapy-related neutropenia in patients with cancer. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to test this hypothesis and the clinical implications. Patients with small-cell lung cancer were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of recombinant methionyl G-CSF to study the incidence of infection as manifested by fever with neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count, less than 1.0 x 10(9) per liter, with a temperature greater than or equal to 38.2 degrees C) resulting from up to six cycles of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or G-CSF, with treatment beginning on day 4 and continuing through day 17 of a 21-day cycle. The safety of the study treatment could be evaluated in 207 of the 211 patients assigned to either drug, and its efficacy in 199. At least one episode of fever with neutropenia occurred in 77 percent of the placebo group, as compared with 40 percent of the G-CSF group (P less than 0.001). Over all cycles of chemotherapy, the median duration of grade IV neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count, less than 0.5 x 10(9) per liter) was six days with placebo as compared with one day with G-CSF. During cycles of blinded treatment, the number of days of treatment with intravenous antibiotics, the number of days of hospitalization, and the incidence of confirmed infections were reduced by approximately 50 percent when G-CSF was given, as compared with placebo. Mild-to-moderate medullary bone pain occurred in 20 percent of the patients receiving G-CSF. The use of G-CSF as an adjunct to chemotherapy in patients with small-cell cancer of the lung was well tolerated and led to reductions in the incidence of fever with neutropenia and culture-confirmed infections; in the incidence, duration, and severity of grade IV neutropenia; and in the total number of days of treatment with intravenous antibiotics and days of hospitalization.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2013
                2013
                11 November 2013
                : 9
                : 457-462
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Oncology Unit, ICOT Hospital, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, University of Rome, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, University of Rome, Italy
                [3 ]Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Italy
                [4 ]Department of Surgery, S Maria Goretti Hospital, Latina, Italy
                [5 ]Oncology Unit, Don Luigi Liegro Hospital, Gaeta, Italy
                [6 ]Oncology Unit, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, University of Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Luigi Rossi Oncology Unit, ICOT Hospital, Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, University of Rome, via Franco Faggiana, 1668, Latina, Italy, Tel +39 349 564 3418, Email dr.rossi@ 123456ymail.com
                Article
                tcrm-9-457
                10.2147/TCRM.S48387
                3832460
                © 2013 Rossi et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

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