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      Fasudil inhibits actin polymerization and collagen synthesis and induces apoptosis in human urethral scar fibroblasts via the Rho/ROCK pathway

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          To examine the effects and mechanism of action of fasudil on cytoskeletal polymerization, collagen synthesis, and apoptosis in fibroblasts derived from human urethral scar tissue.

          Materials and methods

          Fibroblasts treated with or without transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, 10 ng/mL) were incubated with fasudil (12.5, 25, 50 μmol/L) for 24 hours. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to determine the expression of Arp2, Arp3, WASP, and WAVE2. Collagen I and III protein levels were also evaluated by Western blotting. The filamentous actin cytoskeleton was examined by immunofluorescence and epifluorescence microscopy. An Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay was used to investigate apoptosis.

          Results

          TGF-β1-dependent induction of actin polymerization and collagen synthesis and promotion of apoptosis were dose dependent. When compared with untreated controls, fasudil significantly decreased the expression of Arp2, Arp3, WASP, WAVE2, Collagen I, and Collagen III in cells treated with or without TGF-β1. Fasudil also promoted apoptosis in cells, irrespective of TGF-β1 treatment.

          Conclusion

          Irrespective of TGF-β1 activation status, fasudil suppressed actin polymerization and collagen synthesis and induced apoptosis in human urethral scar fibroblasts via the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Protein kinase CK2α is overexpressed in colorectal cancer and modulates cell proliferation and invasion via regulating EMT-related genes

          Background Protein kinase CK2 is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates many substrates and has a global role in numerous biological and pathological processes. Overexpression of the protein kinase CK2α subunit (CK2α) has been associated with the malignant transformation of several tissues, with not nearly as much focus on the role of CK2α in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aims of this study are to investigate the function and regulatory mechanism of CK2α in CRC development. Methods Expression levels of CK2α were analyzed in 144 patients (104 with CRC and 40 with colorectal adenoma) by immunohistochemistry. Proliferation, senescence, motility and invasion assays as well as immunofluorescence staining and western blots were performed to assess the effect of CK2α in CRC. Results The immunohistochemical expression of nuclear CK2α was stronger in tumor tissues than in adenomas and normal colorectal tissues. Suppression of CK2α by small-interfering RNA or the CK2α activity inhibitor emodin inhibited proliferation of CRC cells, caused G0/G1 phase arrest, induced cell senescence, elevated the expression of p53/p21 and decreased the expression of C-myc. We also found that knockdown of CK2α suppressed cell motility and invasion. Significantly, CK2α inhibition resulted in β-catenin transactivation, decreased the expression levels of vimentin and the transcription factors snail1 and smad2/3, and increased the expression of E-cadherin, suggesting that CK2α regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in cancer cells. Conclusions Our results indicate that CK2α plays an essential role in the development of CRC, and inhibition of CK2α may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for human CRC.
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            Effects of F/G-actin ratio and actin turn-over rate on NADPH oxidase activity in microglia

            Background Most in vivo studies that have addressed the role of actin dynamics in NADPH oxidase function in phagocytes have used toxins to modulate the polymerization state of actin and mostly effects on actin has been evaluated by end point measurements of filamentous actin, which says little about actin dynamics, and without consideration for the subcellular distribution of the perturbed actin cytoskeleton. Results Here, we in addition to toxins use conditional expression of the major actin regulatory protein LIM kinase-1 (LIMK1), and shRNA knock-down of cofilin to modulate the cellular F/G-actin ratio in the Ra2 microglia cell line, and we use Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) in β-actin-YFP-transduced cells to obtain a dynamic measure of actin recovery rates (actin turn-over rates) in different F/G-actin states of the actin cytoskeleton. Our data demonstrate that stimulated NADPH oxidase function was severely impaired only at extreme actin recovery rates and F/G-actin ratios, and surprisingly, that any moderate changes of these parameters of the actin cytoskeleton invariably resulted in an increased NADPH oxidase activity. Conclusion moderate actin polymerization and depolymerization both increase the FMLP and PMA-stimulated NADPH oxidase activity of microglia, which is directly correlated with neither actin recovery rate nor F/G- actin ratio. Our results indicate that NADPH oxidase functions in an enhanced state of activity in stimulated phagocytes despite widely different states of the actin cytoskeleton.
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              Structure and biochemical properties of fission yeast Arp2/3 complex lacking the Arp2 subunit.

              Arp2/3 (actin-related protein 2/3) complex is a seven-subunit complex that nucleates branched actin filaments in response to cellular signals. Nucleation-promoting factors such as WASp/Scar family proteins activate the complex by facilitating the activating conformational change and recruiting the first actin monomer for the daughter branch. Here we address the role of the Arp2 subunit in the function of Arp2/3 complex by isolating a version of the complex lacking Arp2 (Arp2Delta Arp2/3 complex) from fission yeast. An x-ray crystal structure of the DeltaArp2 Arp2/3 complex showed that the rest of the complex is unperturbed by the loss of Arp2. However, the Arp2Delta Arp2/3 complex was inactive in actin nucleation assays, indicating that Arp2 is essential to form a branch. A fluorescence anisotropy assay showed that Arp2 does not contribute to the affinity of the complex for Wsp1-VCA, a Schizosaccharomyces pombe nucleation-promoting factor protein. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments showed that the loss of Arp2 does not prevent VCA from recruiting an actin monomer to the complex. Truncation of the N terminus of ARPC5, the smallest subunit in the complex, increased the yield of Arp2Delta Arp2/3 complex during purification but did not compromise nucleation activity of the full Arp2/3 complex.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                03 September 2018
                : 12
                : 2707-2713
                Affiliations
                Departments of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China, drxun@ 123456fjmu.edu.cn
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ning Xu, Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 591 8798 1687, Email drxun@ 123456fjmu.edu.cn
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-12-2707
                10.2147/DDDT.S156095
                6126504
                © 2018 Li et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                fasudil, polymerization, cytoskeleton, rho/rock

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