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      Molecular Mechanisms of Action of FSH

      1 , 2 , * , 3

      Frontiers in Endocrinology

      Frontiers Media S.A.

      FSH, FSHR, signaling, PKA, arrestin

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          The glycoprotein follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) acts on gonadal target cells, hence regulating gametogenesis. The transduction of the hormone-induced signal is mediated by the FSH-specific G protein-coupled receptor (FSHR), of which the action relies on the interaction with a number of intracellular effectors. The stimulatory Gαs protein is a long-time known transducer of FSH signaling, mainly leading to intracellular cAMP increase and protein kinase A (PKA) activation, the latter acting as a master regulator of cell metabolism and sex steroid production. While in vivo data clearly demonstrate the relevance of PKA activation in mediating gametogenesis by triggering proliferative signals, some in vitro data suggest that pro-apoptotic pathways may be awakened as a “dark side” of cAMP/PKA-dependent steroidogenesis, in certain conditions. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are players of death signals in steroidogenic cells, involving downstream p53 and caspases. Although it could be hypothesized that pro-apoptotic signals, if relevant, may be required for regulating atresia of non-dominant ovarian follicles, they should be transient and counterbalanced by mitogenic signals upon FSHR interaction with opposing transducers, such as Gαi proteins and β-arrestins. These molecules modulate the steroidogenic pathway via extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinases (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT), calcium signaling and other intracellular signaling effectors, resulting in a complex and dynamic signaling network characterizing sex- and stage-specific gamete maturation. Even if the FSH-mediated signaling network is not yet entirely deciphered, its full comprehension is of high physiological and clinical relevance due to the crucial role covered by the hormone in regulating human development and reproduction.

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          Most cited references 117

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          The extended protein kinase C superfamily.

          Members of the mammalian protein kinase C (PKC) superfamily play key regulatory roles in a multitude of cellular processes, ranging from control of fundamental cell autonomous activities, such as proliferation, to more organismal functions, such as memory. However, understanding of mammalian PKC signalling systems is complicated by the large number of family members. Significant progress has been made through studies based on comparative analysis, which have defined a number of regulatory elements in PKCs which confer specific location and activation signals to each isotype. Further studies on simple organisms have shown that PKC signalling paradigms are conserved through evolution from yeast to humans, underscoring the importance of this family in cellular signalling and giving novel insights into PKC function in complex mammalian systems.
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            Signalling through phosphoinositide 3-kinases: the lipids take centre stage.

            Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) phosphorylate inositol lipids at the 3' position of the inositol ring to generate the 3-phosphoinositides PI(3)P, PI(3,4) P2 and PI(3,4,5) P3. Recent research has shown that one way in which these lipids function in signal transduction and membrane trafficking is by interacting with 3-phosphoinositide-binding modules in a broad variety of proteins. Specifically, certain FYVE domains bind PI(3)P whereas certain pleckstrin homology domains bind PI(3,4) P2 and/or PI(3,4,5) P3. Also in 1998, PTEN - a major tumour suppressor in human cancer - was also shown to antagonise PI3K signalling by removing the 3-phosphate from 3-phosphoinositides.
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              PI3King the lock: targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway as a novel therapeutic strategy in neuroblastoma.

              Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial cancer in childhood. High-risk neuroblastoma continues to have a poor prognosis and there is an urgent need to design biologically based therapies that specifically target the pathways responsible for malignant transformation and progression. One such pathway is the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. In this article we outline the evidence for aberrant activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in neuroblastoma and discuss the possible mechanisms which mediate it. We also discuss the development of treatments targeting this pathway in neuroblastoma and the challenges that must be overcome before such treatments can enter routine clinical practice.

                Author and article information

                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                14 May 2019
                : 10
                1Unit of Endocrinology, Department Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia , Modena, Italy
                2Center for Genomic Research, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia , Modena, Italy
                3PRC, UMR INRA0085, CNRS 7247, Centre INRA Val de Loire , Nouzilly, France
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ren-Shan Ge, Wenzhou Medical University, China

                Reviewed by: T. Rajendra Kumar, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, United States; Thomas A. Masterson, University of Miami Health System, United States

                *Correspondence: Livio Casarini livio.casarini@ 123456unimore.it

                This article was submitted to Reproduction, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Copyright © 2019 Casarini and Crépieux.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 125, Pages: 10, Words: 8071

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

                fsh, fshr, signaling, pka, arrestin


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