The exact physiological basis of acute growth hormone (GH) suppression by oral glucose is not fully understood. Glucose-mediated increase in hypothalamic somatostatin seems to be the most plausible explanation. Attempts to better understand its underlying mechanisms are compromised by species disparities in the response of GH to glucose load. While in humans, glucose inhibits GH release, the acute elevation of circulating glucose levels in rats has either no effect on GH secretion or may be stimulatory. Likewise, chronic hyperglycemia alters GH release in both humans and rats nonetheless in opposite directions. Several factors influence nadir GH concentrations including, age, gender, body mass index, pubertal age, and the type of assay used. Besides the classical suppressive effects of glucose on GH release, a paradoxical GH increase to oral glucose may be observed in around one third of patients with acromegaly as well as in various other disorders. Though its pathophysiology is poorly characterized, an altered interplay between somatostatin and GH-releasing hormone has been suggested and a link with pituitary ectopic expression of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor has been recently demonstrated. A better understanding of the dynamics mediating GH response to glucose may allow a more optimal use of the OGTT as a diagnostic tool in various conditions, especially acromegaly.