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      Identifying and detecting facial expressions of emotion in peripheral vision

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      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Facial expressions of emotion are signals of high biological value. Whilst recognition of facial expressions has been much studied in central vision, the ability to perceive these signals in peripheral vision has only seen limited research to date, despite the potential adaptive advantages of such perception. In the present experiment, we investigate facial expression recognition and detection performance for each of the basic emotions (plus neutral) at up to 30 degrees of eccentricity. We demonstrate, as expected, a decrease in recognition and detection performance with increasing eccentricity, with happiness and surprised being the best recognized expressions in peripheral vision. In detection however, while happiness and surprised are still well detected, fear is also a well detected expression. We show that fear is a better detected than recognized expression. Our results demonstrate that task constraints shape the perception of expression in peripheral vision and provide novel evidence that detection and recognition rely on partially separate underlying mechanisms, with the latter more dependent on the higher spatial frequency content of the face stimulus.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Universals and cultural differences in the judgments of facial expressions of emotion.

          We present here new evidence of cross-cultural agreement in the judgement of facial expression. Subjects in 10 cultures performed a more complex judgment task than has been used in previous cross-cultural studies. Instead of limiting the subjects to selecting only one emotion term for each expression, this task allowed them to indicate that multiple emotions were evident and the intensity of each emotion. Agreement was very high across cultures about which emotion was the most intense. The 10 cultures also agreed about the second most intense emotion signaled by an expression and about the relative intensity among expressions of the same emotion. However, cultural differences were found in judgments of the absolute level of emotional intensity.
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            Human amygdala responsivity to masked fearful eye whites.

            The amygdala was more responsive to fearful (larger) eye whites than to happy (smaller) eye whites presented in a masking paradigm that mitigated subjects' awareness of their presence and aberrant nature. These data demonstrate that the amygdala is responsive to elements of.
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              Fear, faces, and the human amygdala.

               Ralph Adolphs (2008)
              The amygdala's historical role in processing stimuli related to threat and fear is being modified to suggest a role that is broader and more abstract. Amygdala lesions impair the ability to seek out and make use of the eye region of faces, resulting in impaired fear perception. Other studies in rats and humans revive earlier proposals that the amygdala is important not only for fear perception as such, but also for detecting saliency and biological relevance. Debates about some features of this processing now suggest that while the amygdala can process fearful facial expressions in the absence of conscious perception, and while there is some degree of preattentive processing, this depends on the context and is not necessarily more rapid than cortical processing routes. A large current research effort extends the amygdala's putative role to a number of psychiatric illnesses.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                30 May 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 5
                Affiliations
                School of Psychology, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
                University of Toyama, JAPAN
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-21762
                10.1371/journal.pone.0197160
                5976168
                29847562
                © 2018 Smith, Rossit

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Pages: 15
                Product
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Cognition
                Memory
                Face Recognition
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Learning and Memory
                Memory
                Face Recognition
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Cognitive Psychology
                Perception
                Face Recognition
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Cognitive Psychology
                Perception
                Face Recognition
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Cognitive Psychology
                Perception
                Face Recognition
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Head
                Face
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Head
                Face
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Fear
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Fear
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Sensory Physiology
                Visual System
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiology
                Sensory Physiology
                Visual System
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Sensory Systems
                Visual System
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Sensory Perception
                Vision
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Sensory Perception
                Vision
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Sensory Perception
                Vision
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Happiness
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Emotions
                Happiness
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Mathematical and Statistical Techniques
                Statistical Methods
                Analysis of Variance
                Physical Sciences
                Mathematics
                Statistics (Mathematics)
                Statistical Methods
                Analysis of Variance
                Custom metadata
                Data are contained within Supporting Information material (xls file).

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