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      Differential Regenerative Capacity of the Optic Tectum of Adult Medaka and Zebrafish

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          Abstract

          Zebrafish have superior regenerative capacity in the central nervous system (CNS) compared to mammals. In contrast, medaka were shown to have low regenerative capacity in the adult heart and larval retina, despite the well-documented high tissue regenerative ability of teleosts. Nevertheless, medaka and zebrafish share similar brain structures and biological features to those of mammals. Hence, this study aimed to compare the neural stem cell (NSC) responses and regenerative capacity in the optic tectum of adult medaka and zebrafish after stab wound injury. Limited neuronal differentiation was observed in the injured medaka, though the proliferation of radial glia (RG) was induced in response to tectum injury. Moreover, the expression of the pro-regenerative transcriptional factors ascl1a and oct4 was not enhanced in the injured medaka, unlike in zebrafish, whereas expression of sox2 and stat3 was upregulated in both fish models. Of note, glial scar-like structures composed of GFAP + radial fibers were observed in the injured area of medaka at 14 days post injury (dpi). Altogether, these findings suggest that the adult medaka brain has low regenerative capacity with limited neuronal generation and scar formation. Hence, medaka represent an attractive model for investigating and evaluating critical factors for brain regeneration.

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          Most cited references 68

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          Astrocyte scar formation aids central nervous system axon regeneration.

          Transected axons fail to regrow in the mature central nervous system. Astrocytic scars are widely regarded as causal in this failure. Here, using three genetically targeted loss-of-function manipulations in adult mice, we show that preventing astrocyte scar formation, attenuating scar-forming astrocytes, or ablating chronic astrocytic scars all failed to result in spontaneous regrowth of transected corticospinal, sensory or serotonergic axons through severe spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions. By contrast, sustained local delivery via hydrogel depots of required axon-specific growth factors not present in SCI lesions, plus growth-activating priming injuries, stimulated robust, laminin-dependent sensory axon regrowth past scar-forming astrocytes and inhibitory molecules in SCI lesions. Preventing astrocytic scar formation significantly reduced this stimulated axon regrowth. RNA sequencing revealed that astrocytes and non-astrocyte cells in SCI lesions express multiple axon-growth-supporting molecules. Our findings show that contrary to the prevailing dogma, astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents central nervous system axon regeneration.
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            Müller glial cell reprogramming and retina regeneration.

            Müller glia are the major glial component of the retina. They are one of the last retinal cell types to be born during development, and they function to maintain retinal homeostasis and integrity. In mammals, Müller glia respond to retinal injury in various ways that can be either protective or detrimental to retinal function. Although these cells can be coaxed to proliferate and generate neurons under special circumstances, these responses are meagre and insufficient for repairing a damaged retina. By contrast, in teleost fish (such as zebrafish), the response of Müller glia to retinal injury involves a reprogramming event that imparts retinal stem cell characteristics and enables them to produce a proliferating population of progenitors that can regenerate all major retinal cell types and restore vision. Recent studies have revealed several important mechanisms underlying Müller glial cell reprogramming and retina regeneration in fish that may lead to new strategies for stimulating retina regeneration in mammals.
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              Molecular characterization of retinal stem cells and their niches in adult zebrafish

              Background The persistence in adult teleost fish of retinal stem cells that exhibit all of the features of true 'adult stem cells' – self-renewal, multipotency, and the capacity to respond to injury by mitotic activation with the ability to regenerate differentiated tissues – has been known for several decades. However, the specialized cellular and molecular characteristics of these adult retinal stem cells and the microenvironmental niches that support their maintenance in the differentiated retina and regulate their activity during growth and regeneration have not yet been elucidated. Results Our data show that the zebrafish retina has two kinds of specialized niches that sustain retinal stem cells: 1) a neuroepithelial germinal zone at the interface between neural retina and ciliary epithelium, called the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ), a continuous annulus around the retinal circumference, and 2) the microenvironment around some Müller glia in the differentiated retina. In the uninjured retina, scattered Müller glia (more frequently those in peripheral retina) are associated with clusters of proliferating retinal progenitors that are restricted to the rod photoreceptor lineage, but following injury, the Müller-associated retinal progenitors can function as multipotent retinal stem cells to regenerate other types of retinal neurons. The CMZ has several features in common with the neurogenic niches in the adult mammalian brain, including access to the apical epithelial surface and a close association with blood vessels. Müller glia in the teleost retina have a complex response to local injury that includes some features of reactive gliosis (up-regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP, and re-entry into the cell cycle) together with dedifferentiation and re-acquisition of phenotypic and molecular characteristics of multipotent retinal progenitors in the CMZ (diffuse distribution of N-cadherin, activation of Notch-Delta signaling, and expression of rx1, vsx2/Chx10, and pax6a) along with characteristics associated with radial glia (expression of brain lipid binding protein, BLBP). We also describe a novel specific marker for Müller glia, apoE. Conclusion The stem cell niches that support multi-lineage retinal progenitors in the intact, growing and regenerating teleost retina have properties characteristic of neuroepithelia and neurogenic radial glia. The regenerative capacity of the adult zebrafish retina with its ability to replace lost retinal neurons provides an opportunity to discover the molecular regulators that lead to functional repair of damaged neural tissue.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Cell Dev Biol
                Front Cell Dev Biol
                Front. Cell Dev. Biol.
                Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-634X
                29 June 2021
                2021
                : 9
                Affiliations
                1Functional Biomolecular Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology , Osaka, Japan
                2DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology , Osaka, Japan
                Author notes

                Edited by: Igor Schneider, Federal University of Pará, Brazil

                Reviewed by: Katharina Lust, Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP), Austria; Sepand Rastegar, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany; Karen Mruk, University of Wyoming, United States

                *Correspondence: Yuki Shimizu, yuki.shimizu@ 123456aist.go.jp

                This article was submitted to Evolutionary Developmental Biology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

                Article
                10.3389/fcell.2021.686755
                8276636
                34268310
                Copyright © 2021 Shimizu and Kawasaki.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 68, Pages: 10, Words: 0
                Categories
                Cell and Developmental Biology
                Original Research

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