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Learning physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions: what happens and why?

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      Abstract

      Lack of published studies on students’ practice behaviour of physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions inspired this study into what activities medical students undertake to improve their skills and factors influencing this. Six focus groups of a total of 52 students from Years 1–3 using a pre-established interview guide. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. The interview guide was based on questionnaire results; overall response rate for Years 1–3 was 90% (n = 875). Students report a variety of activities to improve their physical examination skills. On average, students devote 20% of self-study time to skill training with Year 1 students practising significantly more than Year 3 students. Practice patterns shift from just-in-time learning to a longitudinal selfdirected approach. Factors influencing this change are assessment methods and simulated/real patients. Learning resources used include textbooks, examination guidelines, scientific articles, the Internet, videos/DVDs and scoring forms from previous OSCEs. Practising skills on fellow students happens at university rooms or at home. Also family and friends were mentioned to help. Simulated/real patients stimulated students to practise of physical examination skills, initially causing confusion and anxiety about skill performance but leading to increased feelings of competence. Difficult or enjoyable skills stimulate students to practise. The strategies students adopt to master physical examination skills outside timetabled training sessions are self-directed. OSCE assessment does have influence, but learning takes place also when there is no upcoming assessment. Simulated and real patients provide strong incentives to work on skills. Early patient contacts make students feel more prepared for clinical practice.

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      What every teacher needs to know about clinical reasoning.

       Kevin Eva (2004)
      One of the core tasks assigned to clinical teachers is to enable students to sort through a cluster of features presented by a patient and accurately assign a diagnostic label, with the development of an appropriate treatment strategy being the end goal. Over the last 30 years there has been considerable debate within the health sciences education literature regarding the model that best describes how expert clinicians generate diagnostic decisions. The purpose of this essay is to provide a review of the research literature on clinical reasoning for frontline clinical teachers. The strengths and weaknesses of different approaches to clinical reasoning will be examined using one of the core divides between various models (that of analytic (i.e. conscious/controlled) versus non-analytic (i.e. unconscious/automatic) reasoning strategies) as an orienting framework. Recent work suggests that clinical teachers should stress the importance of both forms of reasoning, thereby enabling students to marshal reasoning processes in a flexible and context-specific manner. Specific implications are drawn from this overview for clinical teachers.
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        The assessment of professional competence: Developments, research and practical implications.

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          A cognitive perspective on medical expertise: theory and implication.

          A new theory of the development of expertise in medicine is outlined. Contrary to existing views, this theory assumes that expertise is not so much a matter of superior reasoning skills or in-depth knowledge of pathophysiological states as it is based on cognitive structures that describe the features of prototypical or even actual patients. These cognitive structures, referred to as "illness scripts," contain relatively little knowledge about pathophysiological causes of symptoms and complaints but a wealth of clinically relevant information about disease, its consequences, and the context under which illness develops. By contrast, intermediate-level students without clinical experience typically use pathophysiological, causal models of disease when solving problems. The authors review evidence supporting the theory and discuss its implications for the understanding of five phenomena extensively documented in the clinical-reasoning literature: (1) content specificity in diagnostic performance; (2) typical differences in data-gathering techniques between medical students and physicians; (3) difficulties involved in setting standards; (4) a decline in performance on certain measures of clinical reasoning with increasing expertise; and (5) a paradoxical association between errors and longer response times in visual diagnosis.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Skillslab, Faculty of Health Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, P. O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
            [2 ]Student, Faculty of Health Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
            [3 ]Institute for Medical Education, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
            [4 ]Department of Educational Development and Research, Faculty of Health Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
            Contributors
            +31-628-359428 , r.duvivier@maastrichtuniversity.nl
            Journal
            Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract
            Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract
            Advances in Health Sciences Education
            Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
            1382-4996
            1573-1677
            28 June 2011
            28 June 2011
            August 2012
            : 17
            : 3
            : 339-355
            3378843
            21710301
            9312
            10.1007/s10459-011-9312-5
            © The Author(s) 2011
            Categories
            Article
            Custom metadata
            © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

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