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      Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes between Fetal and Adult Mouse Kidney: Candidate Gene in Kidney Development

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          Background: The kidney development involves a wide variety of developmental processes requiring a lot of genes expressed in a sequential manner. The aim of the present study is to identify new genes involved in these processes. Methods: To obtain a view of the mouse embryonic kidney transcriptome we used the SADE method, which allows large-scale quantitative gene expression measurements. Results: 7,689 tags were sequenced from our library. Among the 4,507 unique transcripts yielded, 64% correspond to known genes, 22% ESTs, 12% unidentified genes. 472 genes were differentially expressed as compared to published adult kidney library. Among these, we identified several candidate genes and focused on a particular one: thymosin β 4 ( Tβ 4), an actin-sequestering protein more highly expressed in fetal kidney. First we studied the in vivo expression patterns of Tβ 4 transcript during kidney development. Tβ4 increases throughout the kidney development and remains high during active nephrogenesis. Moreover, the spatial distribution of Tβ 4 mRNA was analysed and reveals that during active nephrogenesis (i.e., 18 dpc) Tβ 4 is localised in differentiating glomeruli. In adult kidney, Tβ4 remains expressed in podocytes and collecting ducts. Conclusion: Our results provide the first demonstration of Tβ4 production in vivo by embryonic kidney and further show that Tβ4 is implicated in kidney organogenesis.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Epithelial transformation of metanephric mesenchyme in the developing kidney regulated by Wnt-4.

          The kidney has been widely exploited as a model system for the study of tissue inductions regulating vertebrate organogenesis. Kidney development is initiated by the ingrowth of the Wolfian duct-derived ureteric bud into the presumptive kidney mesenchyme. In response to a signal from the ureter, mesenchymal cells condense, aggregate into pretubular clusters and undergo an epithelial conversion generating a simple tubule. This then undergoes morphogenesis and is transformed into the excretory system of the kidney, the nephron. We report here that the expression of Wnt-4, which encodes a secreted glycoprotein, correlates with, and is required for, kidney tubulogenesis. Mice lacking Wnt-4 activity fail to form pretubular cell aggregates; however, other aspects of mesenchymal and ureteric development are unaffected. Thus, Wnt-4 appears to act as an autoinducer of the mesenchyme to epithelial transition that underlies nephron development.
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            Changes in global gene expression patterns during development and maturation of the rat kidney.

             K Bush,  R Stuart,  S. N. Nigam (2001)
            We set out to define patterns of gene expression during kidney organogenesis by using high-density DNA array technology. Expression analysis of 8,740 rat genes revealed five discrete patterns or groups of gene expression during nephrogenesis. Group 1 consisted of genes with very high expression in the early embryonic kidney, many with roles in protein translation and DNA replication. Group 2 consisted of genes that peaked in midembryogenesis and contained many transcripts specifying proteins of the extracellular matrix. Many additional transcripts allied with groups 1 and 2 had known or proposed roles in kidney development and included LIM1, POD1, GFRA1, WT1, BCL2, Homeobox protein A11, timeless, pleiotrophin, HGF, HNF3, BMP4, TGF-alpha, TGF-beta2, IGF-II, met, FGF7, BMP4, and ganglioside-GD3. Group 3 consisted of transcripts that peaked in the neonatal period and contained a number of retrotransposon RNAs. Group 4 contained genes that steadily increased in relative expression levels throughout development, including many genes involved in energy metabolism and transport. Group 5 consisted of genes with relatively low levels of expression throughout embryogenesis but with markedly higher levels in the adult kidney; this group included a heterogeneous mix of transporters, detoxification enzymes, and oxidative stress genes. The data suggest that the embryonic kidney is committed to cellular proliferation and morphogenesis early on, followed sequentially by extracellular matrix deposition and acquisition of markers of terminal differentiation. The neonatal burst of retrotransposon mRNA was unexpected and may play a role in a stress response associated with birth. Custom analytical tools were developed including "The Equalizer" and "eBlot," which contain improved methods for data normalization, significance testing, and data mining.
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              Kidney morphogenesis: cellular and molecular regulation.

              Development of an organ is directed by cell and tissue interactions and these also occur during the formation of functional kidney. During vertebrate development inductive signalling between mesenchyme and epithelium controls the organogenesis of all three kinds of kidneys: pronephros, mesonephros and metanephros. In higher animals the metanephros differentiates into the permanent kidney and in this review we will mainly concentrate on its development. Molecular interactions currently known to function during nephrogenesis have primarily been based on the use of knockout techniques. These studies have highlighted the role for transcription factors, signalling molecules, growth factors and their receptors and also for extracellular matrix components in kidney development. Finally in this review we will represent our own model for kidney development according to the knowledge of the genes involved in the development of the functional excretory organ, kidney.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                February 2006
                23 February 2006
                : 102
                : 3-4
                : p81-p91
                aINSERM U652, IFR 58, Université Paris 5 René Descartes, Paris; bSKULD-TECH, Montpellier; cCEA Saclay, Departement de biologie Joliot Curie, Gif-sur-Yvette, et dIGH-UPR CNRS 1142, Montpellier, France
                90054 Nephron Physiol 2006;102:p81–p91
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 5, References: 23, Pages: 1
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                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Transcriptome, Kidney, Thymosin β4, Kidney development, SAGE


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