+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Exposure of the U.S. Population to Bisphenol A and 4- tertiary-Octylphenol: 2003–2004


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4- tertiary-octylphenol (tOP) are industrial chemicals used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins (BPA) and nonionic surfactants (tOP). These products are in widespread use in the United States.


          We aimed to assess exposure to BPA and tOP in the U.S. general population.


          We measured the total (free plus conjugated) urinary concentrations of BPA and tOP in 2,517 participants ≥ 6 years of age in the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution–high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.


          BPA and tOP were detected in 92.6% and 57.4% of the persons, respectively. Least square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations of BPA were significantly lower in Mexican Americans than in non-Hispanic blacks ( p = 0.006) and non-Hispanic whites ( p = 0.007); LSGM concentrations for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites were not statistically different ( p = 0.21). Females had statistically higher BPA LSGM concentrations than males ( p = 0.043). Children had higher concentrations than adolescents ( p < 0.001), who in turn had higher concentrations than adults ( p = 0.003). LSGM concentrations were lowest for participants in the high household income category (> $45,000/year).


          Urine concentrations of total BPA differed by race/ethnicity, age, sex, and household income. These first U.S. population representative concentration data for urinary BPA and tOP should help guide public health research priorities, including studies of exposure pathways, potential health effects, and risk assessment.

          Related collections

          Most cited references60

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          2000 CDC Growth Charts for the United States: methods and development.

          This report provides detailed information on how the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts for the United States were developed, expanding upon the report that accompanied the initial release of the charts in 2000. The growth charts were developed with data from five national health examination surveys and limited supplemental data. Smoothed percentile curves were developed in two stages. In the first stage, selected empirical percentiles were smoothed with a variety of parametric and nonparametric procedures. In the second stage, parameters were created to obtain the final curves, additional percentiles and z-scores. The revised charts were evaluated using statistical and graphical measures. The 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts were revised for infants (birth to 36 months) and older children (2 to 20 years). New body mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age) charts were created. Use of national data improved the transition from the infant charts to those for older children. The evaluation of the charts found no large or systematic differences between the smoothed percentiles and the empirical data. The 2000 CDC growth charts were developed with improved data and statistical procedures. Health care providers now have an instrument for growth screening that better represents the racial-ethnic diversity and combination of breast- and formula-feeding in the United States. It is recommended that these charts replace the 1977 NCHS charts when assessing the size and growth patterns of infants, children, and adolescents.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            In vivo effects of bisphenol A in laboratory rodent studies.

            Concern is mounting regarding the human health and environmental effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical used in synthesis of plastics. We have reviewed the growing literature on effects of low doses of BPA, below 50 mg/(kg day), in laboratory exposures with mammalian model organisms. Many, but not all, effects of BPA are similar to effects seen in response to the model estrogens diethylstilbestrol and ethinylestradiol. For most effects, the potency of BPA is approximately 10-1000-fold less than that of diethylstilbestrol or ethinylestradiol. Based on our review of the literature, a consensus was reached regarding our level of confidence that particular outcomes occur in response to low dose BPA exposure. We are confident that adult exposure to BPA affects the male reproductive tract, and that long lasting, organizational effects in response to developmental exposure to BPA occur in the brain, the male reproductive system, and metabolic processes. We consider it likely, but requiring further confirmation, that adult exposure to BPA affects the brain, the female reproductive system, and the immune system, and that developmental effects occur in the female reproductive system.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A and 4-Nonylphenol in a Human Reference Population

              Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which are used in baby bottles, as protective coatings on food containers, and for composites and sealants in dentistry. 4-Nonylphenol (NP) is used to make nonylphenol ethoxylates, nonionic surfactants applied as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing, or stabilizing agents in industrial, agricultural, and domestic consumer products. The potential for human exposure to BPA and NP is high because of their widespread use. We measured BPA and NP in archived urine samples from a reference population of 394 adults in the United States using isotope-dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration ranges of BPA and NP were similar to those observed in other human populations. BPA was detected in 95% of the samples examined at concentrations ≥0.1 μg/L urine; the geometric mean and median concentrations were 1.33 μg/L (1.36 μg/g creatinine) and 1.28 μg/L (1.32 μg/g creatinine), respectively; the 95th percentile concentration was 5.18 μg/L (7.95 μg/g creatinine). NP was detected in 51% of the samples examined ≥0.1 μg/L. The median and 95th percentile concentrations were < 0.1 μg/L and 1.57 μg/L (1.39 μg/g creatinine), respectively. The frequent detection of BPA suggests widespread exposure to this compound in residents of the United States. The lower frequency of detection of NP than of BPA could be explained by a lower exposure of humans to NP, by different pharmacokinetic factors (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination), by the fact that 4-n-nonylphenol—the measured NP isomer—represents a small percentage of the NP used in commercial mixtures, or a combination of all of the above. Additional research is needed to determine the best urinary biomarker(s) to assess exposure to NP. Despite the sample population’s nonrepresentativeness of the U.S. population (although sample weights were used to improve the extent to which the results represent the U.S. population) and relatively small size, this study provides the first reference range of human internal dose levels of BPA and NP in a demographically diverse human population.

                Author and article information

                Environ Health Perspect
                Environmental Health Perspectives
                National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
                January 2008
                24 October 2007
                : 116
                : 1
                : 39-44
                Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
                Author notes
                Address correspondence to A.M. Calafat, Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy., NE, Mailstop F53, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. Telephone: (770) 488-7891. Fax: (770) 488-4371. E-mail: Acalafat@ 123456cdc.gov

                The authors declare they have no competing financial interests.

                This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original DOI.
                : 9 August 2007
                : 22 October 2007

                Public health
                Public health
                biomarkers, nhanes, urine, bpa, biomonitoring, top, exposure


                Comment on this article