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      Differential Pulse Voltammetric Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Etidronic Acid in Pharmaceutical Samples by Using rGO-Ag@SiO 2/Au PCB

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          Abstract

          An rGO-Ag@SiO 2 nanocomposite-based electrochemical sensor was developed to detect etidronic acid (EA) using the differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) technique. Rapid self-assembly of the rGO-Ag@SiO 2 nanocomposite was accomplished through probe sonication. The developed rGO-Ag@SiO 2 nanocomposite was used as an electrochemical sensing platform by drop-casting on a gold (Au) printed circuit board (PCB). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) confirmed the enhanced electrochemical active surface area (ECASA) and low charge transfer resistance (R ct) of the rGO-Ag@SiO 2/Au PCB. The accelerated electron transfer and the high number of active sites on the rGO-Ag@SiO 2/Au PCB resulted in the electrochemical detection of EA through the DPV technique with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.68 μM and a linear range of 2.0–200.0 μM. The constructed DPV sensor exhibited high selectivity toward EA, high reproducibility in terms of different Au PCBs, excellent repeatability, and long-term stability in storage at room temperature (25 °C). The real-time application of the rGO-Ag@SiO 2/Au PCB for EA detection was investigated using EA-based pharmaceutical samples. Recovery percentages between 96.2% and 102.9% were obtained. The developed DPV sensor based on an rGO-Ag@SiO 2/Au PCB could be used to detect other electrochemically active species following optimization under certain conditions.

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          A review of graphene and graphene oxide sponge: material synthesis and applications to energy and the environment

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            Graphene and its derivatives for the development of solar cells, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic applications

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              Determination of the Electrochemical Area of Screen-Printed Electrochemical Sensing Platforms

              Screen-printed electrochemical sensing platforms, due to their scales of economy and high reproducibility, can provide a useful approach to translate laboratory-based electrochemistry into the field. An important factor when utilising screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) is the determination of their real electrochemical surface area, which allows for the benchmarking of these SPEs and is an important parameter in quality control. In this paper, we consider the use of cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry to allow for the determination of the real electrochemical area of screen-printed electrochemical sensing platforms, highlighting to experimentalists the various parameters that need to be diligently considered and controlled in order to obtain useful measurements of the real electroactive area.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nanomaterials (Basel)
                Nanomaterials (Basel)
                nanomaterials
                Nanomaterials
                MDPI
                2079-4991
                14 July 2020
                July 2020
                : 10
                : 7
                : 1368
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Electronics Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13210, Korea; satp103@ 123456gc.gachon.ac.kr (S.P.S.); ssreddy@ 123456gachon.ac.kr (S.R.C.)
                [2 ]Gachon Advanced Institute for Health Science & Technology, Gachon University, Incheon 21999, Korea
                [3 ]Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13210, Korea
                Author notes
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7049-5350
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8170-0652
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3839-6410
                Article
                nanomaterials-10-01368
                10.3390/nano10071368
                7407910
                32674260
                3aae6521-f03b-4514-b201-e5ba139b4f5d
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 22 June 2020
                : 11 July 2020
                Categories
                Article

                etidronic acid,differential pulse voltammetry,self-assembly,ultrasonic irradiation

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