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      Construction of a 10,000-Marker Ultradense Genetic Recombination Map of Potato: Providing a Framework for Accelerated Gene Isolation and a Genomewide Physical Map

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          Abstract

          An ultradense genetic linkage map with >10,000 AFLP loci was constructed from a heterozygous diploid potato population. To our knowledge, this is the densest meiotic recombination map ever constructed. A fast marker-ordering algorithm was used, based on the minimization of the total number of recombination events within a given marker order in combination with genotyping error-detection software. This resulted in "skeleton bin maps," which can be viewed as the most parsimonious marker order. The unit of distance is not expressed in centimorgans but in "bins." A bin is a position on the genetic map with a unique segregation pattern that is separated from adjacent bins by a single recombination event. Putative centromeres were identified by a strong clustering of markers, probably due to cold spots for recombination. Conversely, recombination hot spots resulted in large intervals of up to 15 cM without markers. The current level of marker saturation suggests that marker density is proportional to physical distance and independent of recombination frequency. Most chromatids (92%) recombined once or never, suggesting strong chiasma interference. Absolute chiasma interference within a chromosome arm could not be demonstrated. Two examples of contig construction and map-based cloning have demonstrated that the marker spacing was in accordance with the expected physical distance: approximately one marker per BAC length. Currently, the markers are used for genetic anchoring of a physical map of potato to deliver a sequence-ready minimal tiling path of BAC contigs of specific chromosomal regions for the potato genome sequencing consortium (http://www.potatogenome.net).

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          Most cited references 29

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          A comprehensive genetic map of the human genome based on 5,264 microsatellites.

          The great increase in successful linkage studies in a number of higher eukaryotes during recent years has essentially resulted from major improvements in reference genetic linkage maps, which at present consist of short tandem repeat polymorphisms of simple sequences or microsatellites. We report here the last version of the Généthon human linkage map. This map consists of 5,264 short tandem (AC/TG)n repeat polymorphisms with a mean heterozygosity of 70%. The map spans a sex-averaged genetic distance of 3,699 cM and comprises 2,335 positions, of which 2,032 could be ordered with an odds ratio of at least 1,000:1 against alternative orders. The average interval size is 1.6 cM; 59% of the map is covered by intervals of 2 cM at most and 1% remains in intervals above 10 cM.
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            A comprehensive genetic map of the mouse genome.

            The availability of dense genetic linkage maps of mammalian genomes makes feasible a wide range of studies, including positional cloning of monogenic traits, genetic dissection of polygenic traits, construction of genome-wide physical maps, rapid marker-assisted construction of congenic strains, and evolutionary comparisons. We have been engaged for the past five years in a concerted effort to produce a dense genetic map of the laboratory mouse. Here we present the final report of this project. The map contains 7,377 genetic markers, consisting of 6,580 highly informative simple sequence length polymorphisms integrated with 797 restriction fragment length polymorphisms in mouse genes. The average spacing between markers is about 0.2 centimorgans or 400 kilobases.
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              RECORD: a novel method for ordering loci on a genetic linkage map.

              A new method, REcombination Counting and ORDering (RECORD) is presented for the ordering of loci on genetic linkage maps. The method minimizes the total number of recombination events. The search algorithm is a heuristic procedure, combining elements of branch-and-bound with local reshuffling. Since the criterion we propose does not require intensive calculations, the algorithm rapidly produces an optimal ordering as well as a series of near-optimal ones. The latter provides insight into the local certainty of ordering along the map. A simulation study was performed to compare the performance of RECORD and JoinMap. RECORD is much faster and less sensitive to missing observations and scoring errors, since the optimisation criterion is less dependent on the position of the erroneous markers. In particular, RECORD performs better in regions of the map with high marker density. The implications of high marker densities on linkage map construction are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genetics
                Genetics
                Genetics Society of America
                0016-6731
                1943-2631
                June 21 2006
                June 2006
                June 2006
                April 02 2006
                : 173
                : 2
                : 1075-1087
                Article
                10.1534/genetics.106.055871
                1526527
                16582432
                © 2006

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