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      Evaluación in vitro de aislamientos de Trichoderma harzianum para el control de Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii y Fusarium oxysporum en plantas de tomate Translated title: In vitro evaluation of Trichoderma harzianum for control of Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium oxysporum in tomato plants

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          Abstract

          En este estudio se determinó la capacidad antagónica de aislamientos de T. harzianum para el control de Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii y Fusarium oxysporum en raíces de plantas de tomate. Se obtuvieron 6 aislamientos de T. harzianum de 6 municipios del estado Trujillo, empleando la técnica de siembra directa de raíces en agar agua acidificada. El antagonismo se realizó en cultivos duales utilizando agar papa dextrosa, incubados a 25 ºC, bajo un diseño al azar, con 18 tratamientos conformados por cada aislamiento de T. harzianum y cada patógeno, 3 tratamientos testigos correspondientes a cada patógeno y 3 repeticiones por tratamiento, evaluándose el modo de acción e inhibición del crecimiento radial al tercer día. Todos los aislamientos de T. harzianum mostraron un rápido crecimiento sin diferencias significativas entre ellos (p>0,05), aún cuando se observó que el T121 fue más eficaz como controlador. Al comparar el crecimiento de los aislamientos de T. harzianum con el de los hongos patógenos, se obtuvieron diferencias significativas (p<0,05). Cuatro aislamientos de T. harzianum presentaron acción micoparasítica y dos de tipo antibiosis, mecanismos característicos de estas especies de biocontroladores. Todos los aislamientos de T. harzianum estudiados pueden ser utilizados para el control de patógenos de tomate

          Translated abstract

          This study determined the antagonistic capacity of T. harzianum isolates for control of Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium oxysporum in the roots of tomato plants. Six T. harzianum isolates were obtained from 6 municipalities of Trujillo State, using the direct inoculation of roots in acidified water agar technique. The antagonism was carried out in dual cultures using potato dextrose agar, incubated at 25 ºC, under a random design, with 18 treatments conformed for each T. harzianum isolate and each pathogen, 3 control treatments corresponding to each pathogen, and 3 repetitions per treatment, evaluating the mode of action and inhibition of radial growth at the third day. All the T. harzianum isolates showed rapid growth without significant differences among them (p>0.05), even though it was observed that T121 was more efficient as controller. When comparing the growth of the T. harzianum isolates with that of the pathogenic fungi, there were significant differences (p<0.05). Four T. harzianum isolates showed mycoparasitic action, and two antibiosis type action, which are characteristic mechanisms of these bio-controlling species. All the T. harzianum isolates studied can be used for the control of tomato pathogens

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          Most cited references52

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          Mechanisms Employed byTrichodermaSpecies in the Biological Control of Plant Diseases: The History and Evolution of Current Concepts

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            Biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma strains.

            The genus Trichoderma comprises a great number of fungal strains that act as biological control agents, the antagonistic properties of which are based on the activation of multiple mechanisms. Trichoderma strains exert biocontrol against fungal phytopathogens either indirectly, by competing for nutrients and space, modifying the environmental conditions, or promoting plant growth and plant defensive mechanisms and antibiosis, or directly, by mechanisms such as mycoparasitism. These indirect and direct mechanisms may act coordinately and their importance in the biocontrol process depends on the Trichoderma strain, the antagonized fungus, the crop plant, and the environmental conditions, including nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and iron concentration. Activation of each mechanism implies the production of specific compounds and metabolites, such as plant growth factors, hydrolytic enzymes, siderophores, antibiotics, and carbon and nitrogen permeases. These metabolites can be either overproduced or combined with appropriate biocontrol strains in order to obtain new formulations for use in more efficient control of plant diseases and postharvest applications.
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              Biological control and sustainable food production.

              The use of biological control for the management of pest insects pre-dates the modern pesticide era. The first major successes in biological control occurred with exotic pests controlled by natural enemy species collected from the country or area of origin of the pest (classical control). Augmentative control has been successfully applied against a range of open-field and greenhouse pests, and conservation biological control schemes have been developed with indigenous predators and parasitoids. The cost-benefit ratio for classical biological control is highly favourable (1:250) and for augmentative control is similar to that of insecticides (1:2-1:5), with much lower development costs. Over the past 120 years, more than 5000 introductions of approximately 2000 non-native control agents have been made against arthropod pests in 196 countries or islands with remarkably few environmental problems. Biological control is a key component of a 'systems approach' to integrated pest management, to counteract insecticide-resistant pests, withdrawal of chemicals and minimize the usage of pesticides. Current studies indicate that genetically modified insect-resistant Bt crops may have no adverse effects on the activity or function of predators or parasitoids used in biological control. The introduction of rational approaches for the environmental risk assessment of non-native control agents is an essential step in the wider application of biological control, but future success is strongly dependent on a greater level of investment in research and development by governments and related organizations that are committed to a reduced reliance on chemical control.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rsvm
                Revista de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología
                Rev. Soc. Ven. Microbiol.
                Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Venezolana de Microbiología. (Caracas, DF, Venezuela )
                1315-2556
                June 2012
                : 32
                : 1
                : 44-49
                Affiliations
                [01] Trujillo orgnameUniversidad de Los Andes orgdiv1Laboratorio de Fitopatología y Control Biológico Dr. Carlos Díaz Polanco Venezuela
                [02] Trujillo orgnameMinisterio de Educación orgdiv1Escuela Técnica Agropecuaria Robinsoniana Zamorana. Adolfo Navas Coronado Venezuela
                Article
                S1315-25562012000100009 S1315-2556(12)03200109
                3ab76e94-edcf-4910-933d-9e588df01339

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 03 August 2011
                : 22 April 2012
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 42, Pages: 6
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI: Texto completo solamente en formato PDF (ES)
                Categories
                Artículos de Revisión

                Fusarium oxysporum,control biológico,antagonismo,Trichoderma harzianum,Rhizoctonia solani,Sclerotium rolfsii,biological control,antagonism

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