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      The Role of Zinc in Thyroid Hormones Metabolism


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          Abstract. Thyroid hormones play an important role in body homeostasis by facilitating metabolism of lipids and glucose, regulating metabolic adaptations, responding to changes in energy intake, and controlling thermogenesis. Proper metabolism and action of these hormones requires the participation of various nutrients. Among them is zinc, whose interaction with thyroid hormones is complex. It is known to regulate both the synthesis and mechanism of action of these hormones. In the present review, we aim to shed light on the regulatory effects of zinc on thyroid hormones. Scientific evidence shows that zinc plays a key role in the metabolism of thyroid hormones, specifically by regulating deiodinases enzymes activity, thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) synthesis, as well as by modulating the structures of essential transcription factors involved in the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Serum concentrations of zinc also appear to influence the levels of serum T3, T4 and TSH. In addition, studies have shown that Zinc transporters (ZnTs) are present in the hypothalamus, pituitary and thyroid, but their functions remain unknown. Therefore, it is important to further investigate the roles of zinc in regulation of thyroid hormones metabolism, and their importance in the treatment of several diseases associated with thyroid gland dysfunction.

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          Mechanisms of thyroid hormone action.

          Our understanding of thyroid hormone action has been substantially altered by recent clinical observations of thyroid signaling defects in syndromes of hormone resistance and in a broad range of conditions, including profound mental retardation, obesity, metabolic disorders, and a number of cancers. The mechanism of thyroid hormone action has been informed by these clinical observations as well as by animal models and has influenced the way we view the role of local ligand availability; tissue and cell-specific thyroid hormone transporters, corepressors, and coactivators; thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoform-specific action; and cross-talk in metabolic regulation and neural development. In some cases, our new understanding has already been translated into therapeutic strategies, especially for treating hyperlipidemia and obesity, and other drugs are in development to treat cardiac disease and cancer and to improve cognitive function.
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            Obesity and thyroid function.

            A moderate elevation of thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations, which is associated with triiodothyronine (T3) values in or slightly above the upper normal range, is frequently found in obese humans. These alterations seem rather a consequence than a cause of obesity since weight loss leads to a normalization of elevated thyroid hormone levels. Elevated thyroid hormone concentrations increase the resting energy expenditure (REE). The underlying pathways are not fully understood. As a consequence of the increased REE, the availability of accumulated energy for conversion into fat is diminished. In conclusion, the alterations of thyroid hormones in obesity suggest an adaptation process. Since rapid weight loss is associated with a decrease of TSH and T3, the resulting decrease in REE may contribute towards the difficulties maintaining weight loss. Leptin seems to be a promising link between obesity and alterations of thyroid hormones since leptin concentrations influence TSH release. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Thyroid and obesity: an intriguing relationship.


                Author and article information

                International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research
                Hogrefe AG, Bern
                : 89
                : 1-2
                : 80-88
                [ 1 ]Nutrition Department, Federal University of Piauí, Campus Minister Petrônio Portella, Ininga, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil
                Author notes
                Professor Dr Dilina do Nascimento Marreiro, Adress: Rua Hugo Napoleão, 665, Ed. Palazzo Reale, Aptº. 2001, Jóquei, CEP 64048-320, Teresina-PI, dilina.marreiro@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright @ 2019
                : June 16, 2015
                : December 14, 2015

                Endocrinology & Diabetes,Medicine,Nutrition & Dietetics
                Metabolism,thyroid hormones,zinc,thyroid gland
                Endocrinology & Diabetes, Medicine, Nutrition & Dietetics
                Metabolism, thyroid hormones, zinc, thyroid gland


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