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Progression of Local Glaucomatous Damage Near Fixation as Seen with Adaptive Optics Imaging

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      Abstract

      Purpose

      Deep glaucomatous defects near fixation were followed over time with an adaptive optics-scanning light ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) to better understand the progression of these defects and to explore the use of AO-SLO in detecting them.

      Methods

      Six eyes of 5 patients were imaged with an AO-SLO from 2 to 4 times for a range of 14.6 to 33.6 months. All eyes had open-angle glaucoma with deep defects in the superior visual field (VF) near fixation as defined by 10-2 VFs with 5 or more points less than −15 dB; two of the eyes had deep defects in the inferior VF as well. AO-SLO images were obtained around the temporal edge of the disc.

      Results

      In 4 of the 6 eyes, the edge of the inferior-temporal disc region of the retinal nerve fiber (RNF) defect seen on AO-SLO moved closer to fixation within 10.6 to 14.7 months. In 4 eyes, RNF bundles in the affected region appeared to lose contrast and/or disappear.

      Conclusions

      Progressive changes in RNF bundles associated with deep defects on 10-2 VFs can be seen within about 1 year with AO-SLO imaging. These changes are well below the spatial resolution of the 10-2 VF. On the other hand, subtle thinning of regions with RNF bundles is not easy to see with current AO-SLO technology, and may be better followed with OCT.

      Translational Relevance

      AO-SLO imaging may be useful in clinical trials designed to see very small changes in deep defects.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 28

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      Glaucomatous damage of the macula.

      There is a growing body of evidence that early glaucomatous damage involves the macula. The anatomical basis of this damage can be studied using frequency domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT), by which the local thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and local retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform (RGC+) layer can be measured. Based upon averaged fdOCT results from healthy controls and patients, we show that: 1. For healthy controls, the average RGC+ layer thickness closely matches human histological data; 2. For glaucoma patients and suspects, the average RGC+ layer shows greater glaucomatous thinning in the inferior retina (superior visual field (VF)); and 3. The central test points of the 6° VF grid (24-2 test pattern) miss the region of greatest RGC+ thinning. Based upon fdOCT results from individual patients, we have learned that: 1. Local RGC+ loss is associated with local VF sensitivity loss as long as the displacement of RGCs from the foveal center is taken into consideration; and 2. Macular damage is typically arcuate in nature and often associated with local RNFL thinning in a narrow region of the disc, which we call the macular vulnerability zone (MVZ). According to our schematic model of macular damage, most of the inferior region of the macula projects to the MVZ, which is located largely in the inferior quadrant of the disc, a region that is particularly susceptible to glaucomatous damage. A small (cecocentral) region of the inferior macula, and all of the superior macula (inferior VF), project to the temporal quadrant, a region that is less susceptible to damage. The overall message is clear; clinicians need to be aware that glaucomatous damage to the macula is common, can occur early in the disease, and can be missed and/or underestimated with standard VF tests that use a 6° grid, such as the 24-2 VF test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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        Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope

        A broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope (BAOSO) consisting of four afocal telescopes, formed by pairs of off-axis spherical mirrors in a non-planar arrangement, is presented. The non-planar folding of the telescopes is used to simultaneously reduce pupil and image plane astigmatism. The former improves the adaptive optics performance by reducing the root-mean-square (RMS) of the wavefront and the beam wandering due to optical scanning. The latter provides diffraction limited performance over a 3 diopter (D) vergence range. This vergence range allows for the use of any broadband light source(s) in the 450-850 nm wavelength range to simultaneously image any combination of retinal layers. Imaging modalities that could benefit from such a large vergence range are optical coherence tomography (OCT), multi- and hyper-spectral imaging, single- and multi-photon fluorescence. The benefits of the non-planar telescopes in the BAOSO are illustrated by resolving the human foveal photoreceptor mosaic in reflectance using two different superluminescent diodes with 680 and 796 nm peak wavelengths, reaching the eye with a vergence of 0.76 D relative to each other.
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          Initial arcuate defects within the central 10 degrees in glaucoma.

          To better understand the relationship between the spatial patterns of functional (visual field [VF] loss) and structural (axon loss) abnormalities in patients with glaucomatous arcuate defects largely confined to the central 10° on achromatic perimetry. Eleven eyes (9 patients) with arcuate glaucomatous VF defects largely confined to the macula were selected from a larger group of patients with both 10-2 and 24-2 VF tests. Eyes were included if their 10-2 VF had an arcuate defect and if the 24-2 test was normal outside the central 10° (i.e., did not have a cluster of three contiguous points within a hemifield). For the structural analysis, plots of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness of the macula were obtained with frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT). The optic disc locations of the RNFL defects were identified on peripapillary fdOCT scans. The VF arcuate defects extended to within 1° of fixation on the 10-2 test and were present in the superior hemifield in 10 of the 11 eyes. The arcuate RNFL damage, seen in the macular fdOCT scans of all 11 eyes, involved the temporal and inferior temporal portions of the disc on the peripapillary scans. Glaucomatous arcuate defects of the macula's RNFL meet the disc temporal to the peak of the main arcuate bundles and produce a range of macular VF defects from clear arcuate scotomas to a papillofoveal horizontal step ("pistol barrel scotoma"). If RGC displacement is taken into consideration, the RNFL and VF defects can be compared directly.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
            [2 ] Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
            [3 ] New York Eye & Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA
            [4 ] The Eye Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Donald C. Hood, Department of Psychology, 406 Schermerhorn Hall, 1190 Amsterdam Ave., MC5501. e-mail: dch3@ 123456columbia.edu
            Journal
            Transl Vis Sci Technol
            Transl Vis Sci Technol
            tvst
            tvst
            TVST
            Translational Vision Science & Technology
            The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
            2164-2591
            12 July 2017
            July 2017
            : 6
            : 4
            5508541 10.1167/tvst.6.4.6 tvst-06-04-06 TVST/17-0495
            Copyright 2017 The Authors

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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            adaptive optics, glaucoma, retinal nerve fiber

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