+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The influence of exercise and BMI on injuries and illnesses in overweight and obese individuals: a randomized control trial


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Medically treated injuries have been shown to increase with increasing body mass index (BMI). Information is lacking on the frequency and type of injuries and illnesses among overweight and obese adults who engage in regular physical activities as part of weight loss or weight gain prevention programs.


          Sedentary adults with BMIs between 25 and 40 kg/m 2 (n = 397) enrolled in one of two randomized clinical trials that emphasized exercise as part of a weight loss or weight gain prevention program. Interventions differed by duration of the exercise goal (150, 200, or 300 minutes/week or control group). Walking was prescribed as the primary mode of exercise. At six month intervals, participants were asked, "During the past six months, did you have any injury or illness that affected your ability to exercise?" Longitudinal models were used to assess the effects of exercise and BMI on the pattern of injuries/illnesses attributed to exercise over time; censored linear regression was used to identify predictors of time to first injury/illness attributed to exercise.


          During the 18-month study, 46% reported at least one injury/illness, and 32% reported at least one injury that was attributed to exercise. Lower-body musculoskeletal injuries (21%) were the most commonly reported injury followed by cold/flu/respiratory infections (18%) and back pain/injury (10%). Knee injuries comprised one-third of the lower-body musculoskeletal injuries. Only 7% of the injuries were attributed to exercise alone, and 59% of the injuries did not involve exercise. BMI (p ≤ 0.01) but not exercise (p ≥ 0.41) was significantly associated with time to first injury and injuries over time. Participants with higher BMIs were injured earlier or had increased odds of injury over time than participants with lower BMIs. Due to the linear dose-response relationship between BMI and injury/illness, any weight loss and reduction in BMI was associated with a decrease risk of injury/illness and delay in time to injury/illness.


          Overweight and obese adults who were prescribed exercise as part of weight loss or weight gain prevention intervention were not at increased risk of injury compared to overweight adults randomized not to participate in prescribed exercise. Since onset of injury/illness and pattern of injuries over time in overweight and obese individuals were attributed to BMI, weight reduction may be an avenue to reduce the risk of injury/illness in sedentary and previously sedentary overweight and obese adults.

          Trial Registration

          Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00177502 and NCT00177476

          Related collections

          Most cited references8

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Influence of obesity on immune function.

          To compare immune function in obese and nonobese subjects. Obese and nonobese subjects were compared cross-sectionally. To test for the influence of other factors on immunity, aerobic fitness, psychological well-being, and serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol were measured and included in multiple regression models to determine their comparative effects. Community-based subjects included 116 obese women (age = 44.3 +/- 9.7 years, body mass index = 33.2 +/- 6.5) and 41 nonobese women (age = 42.2 +/- 10.9 years, body mass index = 21.2 +/- 1.9). Independent t tests, Pearson product moment correlations, and stepwise multiple regression procedures. Obesity was linked to elevated leukocyte and lymphocyte subset counts (except for natural killer and cytotoxic/suppressor T cells), suppressed mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation (an index of T- and B-cell function), higher monocyte and granulocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity, and normal activity of natural killer cells. These data support the contention that obesity is associated with alterations in immune function. Further research is needed to link immunosuppression with the previously reported elevated risk of infection among the obese.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Physical activity and weight loss: does prescribing higher physical activity goals improve outcome?

            Recommending increased physical activity facilitates long-term weight loss, but the optimal level of physical activity to recommend is unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy for long-term weight loss of recommendations for much higher physical activity than those normally used in behavioral treatments. Overweight men and women (n = 202) were randomly assigned to either a standard behavior therapy (SBT) for obesity, incorporating an energy expenditure (EE) goal of 1000 kcal/wk, or to a high physical activity (HPA) treatment, in which the goal was an EE of 2500 kcal/wk. To help HPA treatment group participants achieve this high exercise goal, their treatment included encouragement to recruit 1-3 exercise partners into the study, personal counseling from an exercise coach, and small monetary incentives. The HPA treatment group reported achieving higher mean (+/- SD) physical activity levels than did the SBT group at 6 mo (EE of 2399 +/- 1571 kcal/wk compared with 1837 +/- 1431 kcal/wk), 12 mo (EE of 2249 +/- 1751 kcal/wk compared with 1565 +/- 1309 kcal/wk), and 18 mo (EE of 2317 +/- 1854 kcal/wk compared with 1629 +/- 1483 kcal/wk) (all P < 0.01). Mean (+/- SEM) cumulative weight losses at 6, 12, and 18 mo in the HPA treatment group were 9.0 +/- 7.1, 8.5 +/- 7.9, and 6.7 +/- 8.1 kg, respectively. In the SBT group, the corresponding weight losses were 8.1 +/- 7.4, 6.1 +/- 8.8, and 4.1 +/- 7.3 kg, respectively. Between-group differences in weight loss were significant at 12 and 18 mo. These results suggest that recommendations of higher levels of physical activity (EE of 2500 kcal/wk) promote long-term weight loss better than do conventional recommendations.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Measures of body composition in blacks and whites: a comparative review.

              Biological differences exist in the body composition of blacks and whites. We reviewed literature on the differences and similarities between the 2 races relative to fat-free body mass (water, mineral, and protein), fat patterning, and body dimensions and proportions. In general, blacks have a greater bone mineral density and body protein content than do whites, resulting in a greater fat-free body density. Additionally, there are racial differences in the distribution of subcutaneous fat and the length of the limbs relative to the trunk. The possibility that these differences are a result of ethnicity rather than of race is also examined. Because most equations that predict relative body fat were derived from predominantly white samples, biological variation between the races in these body-composition indexes has practical significance. Systematic error can result in the inaccurate estimation of the relative body fat of blacks, and therefore of definitions of obesity, if these inherent differences are ignored.

                Author and article information

                Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
                The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
                BioMed Central
                6 January 2010
                : 7
                : 1
                [1 ]Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
                [2 ]Department of Health and Physical Activity, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
                Copyright ©2010 Janney and Jakicic; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 12 February 2009
                : 6 January 2010

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Nutrition & Dietetics


                Comment on this article