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Homology Modeling and Conformational Epitope Prediction of Envelope Protein of Alkhumra Haemorrhagic Fever Virus

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      Abstract

      Background:The aim of this study was to generate in silico 3D-structure of the envelope protein of AHFV using homology modeling method to further predict its conformational epitopes and help other studies to investigate its structural features using the model.Methods:A 3D-structure prediction was developed for the envelope protein of Alkhumra haemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV), an emerging tick-borne flavivirus, based on a homology modeling method using M4T and Modweb servers, as the 3D-structure of the protein is not available yet. Modeled proteins were validated using Modfold 4 server and their accuracies were calculated based on their RSMDs. Having the 3D predicted model with high quality, conformational epitopes were predicted using DiscoTope 2.0.Results:Model generated by M4T was more acceptable than the Modweb-generated model. The global score and P-value calculated by Modfold 4 ensured that a certifiable model was generated by M4T, since its global score was almost near 1 which is the score for a high resolution X-ray crystallography structure. Furthermore, itsthe P-value was much lower than 0.001 which means that the model is completely acceptable. Having 0.46 Å rmsd, this model was shown to be highly accurate. Results from DiscoTope 2.0 showed 26 residues as epitopes, forming conformational epitopes of the modeled protein.Conclusion:The predicted model and epitopes for envelope protein of AHFV can be used in several therapeutic and diagnostic approaches including peptide vaccine development, structure based drug design or diagnostic kit development in order to facilitate the time consuming experimental epitope mapping process.

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      Most cited references 33

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      The relation between the divergence of sequence and structure in proteins.

      Homologous proteins have regions which retain the same general fold and regions where the folds differ. For pairs of distantly related proteins (residue identity approximately 20%), the regions with the same fold may comprise less than half of each molecule. The regions with the same general fold differ in structure by amounts that increase as the amino acid sequences diverge. The root mean square deviation in the positions of the main chain atoms, delta, is related to the fraction of mutated residues, H, by the expression: delta(A) = 0.40 e1.87H.
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        The envelope glycoprotein from tick-borne encephalitis virus at 2 A resolution.

        The crystallographically determined structure of a soluble fragment from the major envelope protein of a flavivirus reveals an unusual architecture. The flat, elongated dimer extends in a direction that would be parallel to the viral membrane. Residues that influence binding of monoclonal antibodies lie on the outward-facing surface of the protein. The clustering of mutations that affect virulence in various flaviviruses indicates a possible receptor binding site and, together with other mutational and biochemical data, suggests a picture for the fusion-activating, conformational change triggered by low pH.
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          Prediction of residues in discontinuous B-cell epitopes using protein 3D structures.

          Discovery of discontinuous B-cell epitopes is a major challenge in vaccine design. Previous epitope prediction methods have mostly been based on protein sequences and are not very effective. Here, we present DiscoTope, a novel method for discontinuous epitope prediction that uses protein three-dimensional structural data. The method is based on amino acid statistics, spatial information, and surface accessibility in a compiled data set of discontinuous epitopes determined by X-ray crystallography of antibody/antigen protein complexes. DiscoTope is the first method to focus explicitly on discontinuous epitopes. We show that the new structure-based method has a better performance for predicting residues of discontinuous epitopes than methods based solely on sequence information, and that it can successfully predict epitope residues that have been identified by different techniques. DiscoTope detects 15.5% of residues located in discontinuous epitopes with a specificity of 95%. At this level of specificity, the conventional Parker hydrophilicity scale for predicting linear B-cell epitopes identifies only 11.0% of residues located in discontinuous epitopes. Predictions by the DiscoTope method can guide experimental epitope mapping in both rational vaccine design and development of diagnostic tools, and may lead to more efficient epitope identification.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
            Author notes
            [* ] Corresponding author: Dr Hassan Mohabatkar, E-mail: h.mohabatkar@ 123456ast.ui.ac.ir
            Journal
            J Arthropod Borne Dis
            J Arthropod Borne Dis
            JAD
            JAD
            Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases
            Tehran University of Medical Sciences
            2322-1984
            2322-2271
            June 2015
            16 July 2014
            : 9
            : 1
            : 116-124
            4478412
            jad-9-116
            Copyright© Iranian Society of Medical Entomology & Tehran University of Medical Sciences

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

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