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      WNT/β-catenin signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma: The aberrant activation, pathogenic roles, and therapeutic opportunities

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          Abstract

          Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a liver cancer, highly heterogeneous both at the histopathological and molecular levels. It arises from hepatocytes as the result of the accumulation of numerous genomic alterations in various signaling pathways, including canonical WNT/β-catenin, AKT/mTOR, MAPK pathways as well as signaling associated with telomere maintenance, p53/cell cycle regulation, epigenetic modifiers, and oxidative stress. The role of WNT/β-catenin signaling in liver homeostasis and regeneration is well established, whereas in development and progression of HCC is extensively studied. Herein, we review recent advances in our understanding of how WNT/β-catenin signaling facilitates the HCC development, acquisition of stemness features, metastasis, and resistance to treatment. We outline genetic and epigenetic alterations that lead to activated WNT/β-catenin signaling in HCC. We discuss the pivotal roles of CTNNB1 mutations, aberrantly expressed non-coding RNAs and complexity of crosstalk between WNT/β-catenin signaling and other signaling pathways as challenging or advantageous aspects of therapy development and molecular stratification of HCC patients for treatment.

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          A global view of hepatocellular carcinoma: trends, risk, prevention and management

          Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Risk factors for HCC include chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C, alcohol addiction, metabolic liver disease (particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) and exposure to dietary toxins such as aflatoxins and aristolochic acid. All these risk factors are potentially preventable, highlighting the considerable potential of risk prevention for decreasing the global burden of HCC. HCC surveillance and early detection increase the chance of potentially curative treatment; however, HCC surveillance is substantially underutilized, even in countries with sufficient medical resources. Early-stage HCC can be treated curatively by local ablation, surgical resection or liver transplantation. Treatment selection depends on tumour characteristics, the severity of underlying liver dysfunction, age, other medical comorbidities, and available medical resources and local expertise. Catheter-based locoregional treatment is used in patients with intermediate-stage cancer. Kinase and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been shown to be effective treatment options in patients with advanced-stage HCC. Together, rational deployment of prevention, attainment of global goals for viral hepatitis eradication, and improvements in HCC surveillance and therapy hold promise for achieving a substantial reduction in the worldwide HCC burden within the next few decades.
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            MicroRNA therapeutics: towards a new era for the management of cancer and other diseases

            MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can modulate mRNA expression. Insights into the roles of miRNAs in development and disease have led to the development of new therapeutic approaches that are based on miRNA mimics or agents that inhibit their functions (antimiRs), and the first such approaches have entered the clinic. This Review discusses the role of different miRNAs in cancer and other diseases, and provides an overview of current miRNA therapeutics in the clinic.
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              Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling, Disease, and Emerging Therapeutic Modalities.

              The WNT signal transduction cascade is a main regulator of development throughout the animal kingdom. Wnts are also key drivers of most types of tissue stem cells in adult mammals. Unsurprisingly, mutated Wnt pathway components are causative to multiple growth-related pathologies and to cancer. Here, we describe the core Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, how it controls stem cells, and contributes to disease. Finally, we discuss strategies for Wnt-based therapies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                2352-4820
                2352-3042
                08 April 2023
                March 2024
                08 April 2023
                : 11
                : 2
                : 727-746
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of Molecular Biology of Cancer, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz 92-215, Poland
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Department of Molecular Biology of Cancer, Medical University of Lodz, 6/8 Mazowiecka Street, Lodz 92-215, Poland. malgorzata.czyz@ 123456umed.lodz.pl
                Article
                S2352-3042(23)00126-5
                10.1016/j.gendis.2023.02.050
                10491942
                37692481
                3ad32ef3-86c7-47ba-9d33-9e58cdc69c84
                © 2023 The Authors. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 15 July 2022
                : 28 December 2022
                : 14 February 2023
                Categories
                Review Article

                cancer stem cells,ctnnb1 mutations,liver cancer,non-coding rna,tumor heterogeneity

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