Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

KEGG: new perspectives on genomes, pathways, diseases and drugs

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      KEGG ( http://www.kegg.jp/ or http://www.genome.jp/kegg/) is an encyclopedia of genes and genomes. Assigning functional meanings to genes and genomes both at the molecular and higher levels is the primary objective of the KEGG database project. Molecular-level functions are stored in the KO (KEGG Orthology) database, where each KO is defined as a functional ortholog of genes and proteins. Higher-level functions are represented by networks of molecular interactions, reactions and relations in the forms of KEGG pathway maps, BRITE hierarchies and KEGG modules. In the past the KO database was developed for the purpose of defining nodes of molecular networks, but now the content has been expanded and the quality improved irrespective of whether or not the KOs appear in the three molecular network databases. The newly introduced addendum category of the GENES database is a collection of individual proteins whose functions are experimentally characterized and from which an increasing number of KOs are defined. Furthermore, the DISEASE and DRUG databases have been improved by systematic analysis of drug labels for better integration of diseases and drugs with the KEGG molecular networks. KEGG is moving towards becoming a comprehensive knowledge base for both functional interpretation and practical application of genomic information.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 12

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      UniProt: a hub for protein information

      UniProt is an important collection of protein sequences and their annotations, which has doubled in size to 80 million sequences during the past year. This growth in sequences has prompted an extension of UniProt accession number space from 6 to 10 characters. An increasing fraction of new sequences are identical to a sequence that already exists in the database with the majority of sequences coming from genome sequencing projects. We have created a new proteome identifier that uniquely identifies a particular assembly of a species and strain or subspecies to help users track the provenance of sequences. We present a new website that has been designed using a user-experience design process. We have introduced an annotation score for all entries in UniProt to represent the relative amount of knowledge known about each protein. These scores will be helpful in identifying which proteins are the best characterized and most informative for comparative analysis. All UniProt data is provided freely and is available on the web at http://www.uniprot.org/.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: found
        Is Open Access

        KEGG as a reference resource for gene and protein annotation

        KEGG (http://www.kegg.jp/ or http://www.genome.jp/kegg/) is an integrated database resource for biological interpretation of genome sequences and other high-throughput data. Molecular functions of genes and proteins are associated with ortholog groups and stored in the KEGG Orthology (KO) database. The KEGG pathway maps, BRITE hierarchies and KEGG modules are developed as networks of KO nodes, representing high-level functions of the cell and the organism. Currently, more than 4000 complete genomes are annotated with KOs in the KEGG GENES database, which can be used as a reference data set for KO assignment and subsequent reconstruction of KEGG pathways and other molecular networks. As an annotation resource, the following improvements have been made. First, each KO record is re-examined and associated with protein sequence data used in experiments of functional characterization. Second, the GENES database now includes viruses, plasmids, and the addendum category for functionally characterized proteins that are not represented in complete genomes. Third, new automatic annotation servers, BlastKOALA and GhostKOALA, are made available utilizing the non-redundant pangenome data set generated from the GENES database. As a resource for translational bioinformatics, various data sets are created for antimicrobial resistance and drug interaction networks.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          From genomics to chemical genomics: new developments in KEGG

          The increasing amount of genomic and molecular information is the basis for understanding higher-order biological systems, such as the cell and the organism, and their interactions with the environment, as well as for medical, industrial and other practical applications. The KEGG resource () provides a reference knowledge base for linking genomes to biological systems, categorized as building blocks in the genomic space (KEGG GENES) and the chemical space (KEGG LIGAND), and wiring diagrams of interaction networks and reaction networks (KEGG PATHWAY). A fourth component, KEGG BRITE, has been formally added to the KEGG suite of databases. This reflects our attempt to computerize functional interpretations as part of the pathway reconstruction process based on the hierarchically structured knowledge about the genomic, chemical and network spaces. In accordance with the new chemical genomics initiatives, the scope of KEGG LIGAND has been significantly expanded to cover both endogenous and exogenous molecules. Specifically, RPAIR contains curated chemical structure transformation patterns extracted from known enzymatic reactions, which would enable analysis of genome-environment interactions, such as the prediction of new reactions and new enzyme genes that would degrade new environmental compounds. Additionally, drug information is now stored separately and linked to new KEGG DRUG structure maps.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan
            [2 ]Healthcare Solutions Department, Fujitsu Kyushu Systems Ltd., Hakata-ku, Fukuoka 812-0007, Japan
            Author notes
            [* ]To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +81 774 38 4521; Fax: +81 774 38 3269; Email: kanehisa@ 123456kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp
            Journal
            Nucleic Acids Res
            Nucleic Acids Res
            nar
            nar
            Nucleic Acids Research
            Oxford University Press
            0305-1048
            1362-4962
            04 January 2017
            29 November 2016
            29 November 2016
            : 45
            : Database issue , Database issue
            : D353-D361
            27899662
            5210567
            10.1093/nar/gkw1092
            © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@ 123456oup.com

            Counts
            Pages: 9
            Product
            Categories
            Database Issue
            Custom metadata
            04 January 2017

            Genetics

            Comments

            Comment on this article