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      Arterial Stiffness: A Nexus between Cardiac and Renal Disease

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          Abstract

          Vascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world, and vascular function is determined by structural and functional properties of the arterial vascular wall. Cardiorenal metabolic syndrome such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease, and aging are conditions that predispose to arterial stiffening, which is a pathological alteration of the vascular wall and ultimately results in target organ damage in heart and kidney. In this review, we provide new insights on the interactions between arterial stiffness, vascular resistance and pulse wave velocity as well as final end-organ damage in heart and kidney. Better understanding of the mechanisms of arterial functional and hemodynamic alteration may help in developing more refined therapeutic strategies aimed to reduce cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Chronic kidney disease: effects on the cardiovascular system.

          Accelerated cardiovascular disease is a frequent complication of renal disease. Chronic kidney disease promotes hypertension and dyslipidemia, which in turn can contribute to the progression of renal failure. Furthermore, diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of renal failure in developed countries. Together, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes are major risk factors for the development of endothelial dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis. Inflammatory mediators are often elevated and the renin-angiotensin system is frequently activated in chronic kidney disease, which likely contributes through enhanced production of reactive oxygen species to the accelerated atherosclerosis observed in chronic kidney disease. Promoters of calcification are increased and inhibitors of calcification are reduced, which favors metastatic vascular calcification, an important participant in vascular injury associated with end-stage renal disease. Accelerated atherosclerosis will then lead to increased prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Consequently, subjects with chronic renal failure are exposed to increased morbidity and mortality as a result of cardiovascular events. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease are major considerations in the management of individuals with chronic kidney disease.
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            Is Open Access

            Female Mice are Protected against High-Fat Diet Induced Metabolic Syndrome and Increase the Regulatory T Cell Population in Adipose Tissue

            Sex differences in obesity-induced complications such as type 2 diabetes have been reported. The aim of the study was to pinpoint the mechanisms resulting in different outcome of female and male mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice fed control or HFD were monitored for weight, blood glucose, and insulin for 14 weeks. Circulating chemokines, islet endocrine function and blood flow, as well as adipose tissue populations of macrophages and regulatory T-lymphocytes (Treg) were thereafter assessed. Despite similar weight (43.8±1.0 and 40.2±1.5 g, respectively), male but not female mice developed hyperinsulinemia on HFD as previously described (2.5±0.7 and 0.5±0.1 pmol/l, respectively) consistent with glucose intolerance. Male mice also exhibited hypertrophic islets with intact function in terms of insulin release and blood perfusion. Low-grade, systemic inflammation was absent in obese female but present in obese male mice (IL-6 and mKC, males: 77.4±17 and 1795±563; females: 14.6±4.9 and 240±22 pg/ml), and the population of inflammatory macrophages was increased in intra-abdominal adipose tissues of high-fat-fed male but not female mice. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory Treg cell population increased in the adipose tissue of female mice in response to weight gain, while the number decreased in high-fat-fed male mice. In conclusion, female mice are protected against HFD-induced metabolic changes while maintaining an anti-inflammatory environment in the intra-abdominal adipose tissue with expanded Treg cell population, whereas HFD-fed male mice develop adipose tissue inflammation, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and islet hypertrophy.
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              Arterial stiffness and pulse pressure in CKD and ESRD.

              We recognize that increased systolic pressure is the most challenging form of hypertension today and that pulse pressure as an independent cardiovascular risk factor has focused attention on arterial stiffness and wave reflections as the most important factors determining these pressures. In recent years, many studies emphasized the role of arterial rigidity in the development of cardiovascular diseases, and it was shown that stiffening of arteries is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Moreover,arterial stiffening is linked to decreased glomerular filtration rate, and is predictive of kidney disease progression and the patient’s cardiovascular outcome. Premature vascular aging and arterial stiffening are observed with progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in end-stage renal disease(ESRD). This accelerated aging is associated with outward remodeling of large vessels, characterized by increased arterial radius not totally compensated for by artery wall hypertrophy. Arterial stiffening in CKD and ESRD patients is of multifactorial origin with extensive arterial calcifications representing a major covariate. With aging, the rigidity is more pronounced in the aorta than in peripheral conduit arteries, leading to the disappearance or inversion of the arterial stiffness gradient and less protection of the microcirculation from high-pressure transmission. Various non-pharmacological or pharmacological interventions can modestly slow the progression of arterial stiffness,but arterial stiffness is, in part, pressure dependent and treatments able to stop the process mainly include antihypertensive drugs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRM
                Cardiorenal Med
                10.1159/issn.1664-5502
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1664-3828
                1664-5502
                2014
                April 2014
                14 March 2014
                : 4
                : 1
                : 60-71
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, bDiabetes Cardiovascular Center, cDepartment of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, and dHarry S. Truman Memorial Veterans Hospital, Columbia, Mo., USA
                Author notes
                *Assist. Prof. Guanghong Jia, PhD, University of Missouri, D109 Diabetes Center HSC, One Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO 65212 (USA), E-Mail jiag@health.missouri.edu
                Article
                360867 PMC4024508 Cardiorenal Med 2014;4:60-71
                10.1159/000360867
                PMC4024508
                24847335
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Pages: 12
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