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      Histamine regulates cytokine production in maturing dendritic cells, resulting in altered T cell polarization

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      Journal of Clinical Investigation

      American Society for Clinical Investigation

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          Most cited references 38

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          Kinetics of dendritic cell activation: impact on priming of TH1, TH2 and nonpolarized T cells.

          To prime immune responses, dendritic cells (DCs) need to be activated to acquire T cell stimulatory capacity. Although some stimuli trigger interleukin 12 (IL-12) production that leads to T helper cell type I (TH1) polarization, others fail to do so and favor TH2 polarization. We show that after activation by lipopolysaccharide, DCs produced IL-12 only transiently and became refractory to further stimulation. The exhaustion of cytokine production impacted the T cell polarizing process. Soon after stimulation DCs primed strong TH1 responses, whereas at later time points the same cells preferentially primed TH2 and nonpolarized T cells. These findings indicate that during an immune response, T cell priming conditions may change in the lymph nodes, suggesting another mechanism for the regulation of effector and memory T cells.
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            Dendritic cell regulation of TH1-TH2 development.

            Understanding the control exerted by cytokines on T helper cell subsets 1 and 2 (TH1-TH2) development has progressed to a fairly satisfying knowledge of intracellular signals and transcription factors. Less is understood about the molecular basis of TH1-TH2 development exerted by other parameters, such as how the antigen presenting cell can influence this process. Recent work suggests that dendritic cell subsets contribute significant polarizing influences on T helper differentiation, but how this comes about is less clear. In some cases known pathways may be used, as in the dendritic cell subset 1 exerting TH1 polarization by interleukin 12 (IL-12) production and STAT4 activation. In others, the effects are still in need of explanation.
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              B7-1 and B7-2 costimulatory molecules activate differentially the Th1/Th2 developmental pathways: application to autoimmune disease therapy.

              CD4 T helper precursor cells mature along two alternative pathways, Th1 and Th2. Here we show that these pathways are differentially activated by two costimulatory molecules, B7-1 and B7-2. Using anti-B7 antibodies, this developmental step was manipulated both in vitro and in vivo in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Anti-B7-1 reduced the incidence of disease while anti-B7-2 increased disease severity. Neither antibody affected overall T cell induction but rather altered cytokine profile. Administration of anti-B7-1 at immunization resulted in predominant generation of Th2 clones whose transfer both prevented induction of EAE and abrogated established disease. Since co-treatment with anti-IL-4 antibody prevented disease amelioration, costimulatory molecules may directly affect initial cytokine secretion. Thus, interaction of B7-1 and B7-2 with shared counterreceptors CD28 and CTLA-4 results in very different outcomes in clinical disease by influencing commitment of precursors to a Th1 or Th2 lineage.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Investigation
                J. Clin. Invest.
                American Society for Clinical Investigation
                0021-9738
                December 15 2001
                December 15 2001
                : 108
                : 12
                : 1865-1873
                Article
                10.1172/JCI200113930
                © 2001
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.jci.org/articles/view/13930

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