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      The essential role of sugar metabolism in the acclimation response of Arabidopsis thaliana to high light intensities

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          Analyses of mutants impaired in assimilate export from chloroplasts revealed that carbohydrates as primary output of photosynthesis control expression of nuclear genes associated with plastidial processes such as acclimation to high light intensities.


          Retrograde signals from chloroplasts are thought to control the expression of nuclear genes associated with plastidial processes such as acclimation to varying light conditions. Arabidopsis mutants altered in the day and night path of photoassimilate export from the chloroplasts served as tools to study the involvement of carbohydrates in high light (HL) acclimation. A double mutant impaired in the triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (TPT) and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) ( adg1-1/tpt-2) exhibits a HL-dependent depletion in endogenous carbohydrates combined with a severe growth and photosynthesis phenotype. The acclimation response of mutant and wild-type plants has been assessed in time series after transfer from low light (LL) to HL by analysing photosynthetic performance, carbohydrates, MgProtoIX (a chlorophyll precursor), and the ascorbate/glutathione redox system, combined with microarray-based transcriptomic and GC-MS-based metabolomic approaches. The data indicate that the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates (predominantly glucose) acts as a short-term response to HL exposure in both mutant and wild-type plants. Only if carbohydrates are depleted in the long term (e.g. after 2 d) is the acclimation response impaired, as observed in the adg1-1/tpt-2 double mutant. Furthermore, meta-analyses conducted with in-house and publicly available microarray data suggest that, in the long term, reactive oxygen species such as H 2O 2 can replace carbohydrates as signals. Moreover, a cross-talk exists between genes associated with the regulation of starch and lipid metabolism. The involvement of genes responding to phytohormones in HL acclimation appears to be less likely. Various candidate genes involved in retrograde control of nuclear gene expression emerged from the analyses of global gene expression.

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          Most cited references 65

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          MAPMAN: a user-driven tool to display genomics data sets onto diagrams of metabolic pathways and other biological processes.

          MAPMAN is a user-driven tool that displays large data sets onto diagrams of metabolic pathways or other processes. SCAVENGER modules assign the measured parameters to hierarchical categories (formed 'BINs', 'subBINs'). A first build of TRANSCRIPTSCAVENGER groups genes on the Arabidopsis Affymetrix 22K array into >200 hierarchical categories, providing a breakdown of central metabolism (for several pathways, down to the single enzyme level), and an overview of secondary metabolism and cellular processes. METABOLITESCAVENGER groups hundreds of metabolites into pathways or groups of structurally related compounds. An IMAGEANNOTATOR module uses these groupings to organise and display experimental data sets onto diagrams of the users' choice. A modular structure allows users to edit existing categories, add new categories and develop SCAVENGER modules for other sorts of data. MAPMAN is used to analyse two sets of 22K Affymetrix arrays that investigate the response of Arabidopsis rosettes to low sugar: one investigates the response to a 6-h extension of the night, and the other compares wild-type Columbia-0 (Col-0) and the starchless pgm mutant (plastid phosphoglucomutase) at the end of the night. There were qualitatively similar responses in both treatments. Many genes involved in photosynthesis, nutrient acquisition, amino acid, nucleotide, lipid and cell wall synthesis, cell wall modification, and RNA and protein synthesis were repressed. Many genes assigned to amino acid, nucleotide, lipid and cell wall breakdown were induced. Changed expression of genes for trehalose metabolism point to a role for trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) as a starvation signal. Widespread changes in the expression of genes encoding receptor kinases, transcription factors, components of signalling pathways, proteins involved in post-translational modification and turnover, and proteins involved in the synthesis and sensing of cytokinins, abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene revealing large-scale rewiring of the regulatory network is an early response to sugar depletion.
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            An “Electronic Fluorescent Pictograph” Browser for Exploring and Analyzing Large-Scale Biological Data Sets

            Background The exploration of microarray data and data from other high-throughput projects for hypothesis generation has become a vital aspect of post-genomic research. For the non-bioinformatics specialist, however, many of the currently available tools provide overwhelming amounts of data that are presented in a non-intuitive way. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to facilitate the interpretation and analysis of microarray data and data from other large-scale data sets, we have developed a tool, which we have dubbed the electronic Fluorescent Pictograph – or eFP – Browser, available at, for exploring microarray and other data for hypothesis generation. This eFP Browser engine paints data from large-scale data sets onto pictographic representations of the experimental samples used to generate the data sets. We give examples of using the tool to present Arabidopsis gene expression data from the AtGenExpress Consortium (Arabidopsis eFP Browser), data for subcellular localization of Arabidopsis proteins (Cell eFP Browser), and mouse tissue atlas microarray data (Mouse eFP Browser). Conclusions/Significance The eFP Browser software is easily adaptable to microarray or other large-scale data sets from any organism and thus should prove useful to a wide community for visualizing and interpreting these data sets for hypothesis generation.
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              Determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide using glutathione reductase and 2-vinylpyridine.


                Author and article information

                1Department of Botany II, Cologne Biocenter, University of Cologne , Zülpicher Straße 47b, D-50674 Cologne, Germany
                2Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology , Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam OT Golm, Germany
                3Agriculture Research Council, Research Center for Vegetable Crops , Via Cavalleggeri 25, 84098 Pontecagnano (Salerno), Italy
                4Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants, University of Bielefeld , Universitätsstraße 25, D-33615 Bielefeld, Germany
                5Institute of Biology, Plant Physiology, Humboldt-University Berlin , Philippstraße 13, D-10115 Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                * Present address: Plant Molecular Physiology and Biotechnology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Universitätsstrasse 1, D-40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.
                To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: rainer.haeusler@
                J Exp Bot
                J. Exp. Bot
                Journal of Experimental Botany
                Oxford University Press (UK )
                April 2014
                12 February 2014
                12 February 2014
                : 65
                : 6
                : 1619-1636
                24523502 3967092 10.1093/jxb/eru027
                © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Pages: 18
                Research Paper


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