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      Alantolactone inhibits proliferation, metastasis and promotes apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin and MAPKs signaling pathways

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          Abstract

          Although there are many therapeutic strategies such as surgery and chemotherapy, the prognosis of osteosarcoma (OS) is still far from being satisfactory. It is urgent to develop more effective, tolerable and safe drugs for the treatment of OS. In the present study, we investigated the anti-OS activity of Alantolactone (ALT), a natural eucalyptone sesquiterpene lactone mainly exists in Inula helenium, and probed the possible mechanism involved. We demonstrated that ALT significantly inhibited cell proliferation of various human OS cell lines while had relative lower cytotoxicity against normal cells. Then, we validated that ALT reduced migration, decreased invasion possibly through reversing epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and suppressing Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Moreover, we confirmed that ALT promoted apoptosis and arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase of human OS cells in vitro. In addition, we confirmed that ALT restrained tumor growth and metastasis of OS 143 cells in a xenograft model in vivo. Mechanistically, ALT inhibited the activity of Wnt/β-catenin and p38, ERK1/2 and JNK Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) signal pathway. Notably, the combination of ALT and Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor, as well as the combination of ALT and MAPKs inhibitors resulted in a synergistically effect on inhibiting the proliferation, migration and invasion of OS cells. Collectively, our results validate the ALT may inhibit proliferation, metastasis and promotes apoptosis of human OS cells possibly through suppressing Wnt/β-Catenin and MAPKs signaling pathways.

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          New insights into the mechanisms of epithelial–mesenchymal transition and implications for cancer

          Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular programme that is known to be crucial for embryogenesis, wound healing and malignant progression. During EMT, cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions are remodelled, which leads to the detachment of epithelial cells from each other and the underlying basement membrane, and a new transcriptional programme is activated to promote the mesenchymal fate. In the context of neoplasias, EMT confers on cancer cells increased tumour-initiating and metastatic potential and a greater resistance to elimination by several therapeutic regimens. In this Review, we discuss recent findings on the mechanisms and roles of EMT in normal and neoplastic tissues, and the cell-intrinsic signals that sustain expression of this programme. We also highlight how EMT gives rise to a variety of intermediate cell states between the epithelial and the mesenchymal state, which could function as cancer stem cells. In addition, we describe the contributions of the tumour microenvironment in inducing EMT and the effects of EMT on the immunobiology of carcinomas.
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            EMT Transition States during Tumor Progression and Metastasis

            Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal features. In cancer, EMT is associated with tumor initiation, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. Recently, it has been demonstrated that EMT is not a binary process, but occurs through distinct cellular states. Here, we review the recent studies that demonstrate the existence of these different EMT states in cancer and the mechanisms regulating their functions. We discuss the different functional characteristics, such as proliferation, propagation, plasticity, invasion, and metastasis associated with the distinct EMT states. We summarize the role of the transcriptional and epigenetic landscapes, gene regulatory network and their surrounding niche in controlling the transition through the different EMT states.
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              Apoptosis as anticancer mechanism: function and dysfunction of its modulators and targeted therapeutic strategies

              Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that results in the orderly and efficient removal of damaged cells, such as those resulting from DNA damage or during development. Apoptosis can be triggered by signals from within the cell, such as genotoxic stress, or by extrinsic signals, such as the binding of ligands to cell surface death receptors. Deregulation in apoptotic cell death machinery is an hallmark of cancer. Apoptosis alteration is responsible not only for tumor development and progression but also for tumor resistance to therapies. Most anticancer drugs currently used in clinical oncology exploit the intact apoptotic signaling pathways to trigger cancer cell death. Thus, defects in the death pathways may result in drug resistance so limiting the efficacy of therapies. Therefore, a better understanding of the apoptotic cell death signaling pathways may improve the efficacy of cancer therapy and bypass resistance. This review will highlight the role of the fundamental regulators of apoptosis and how their deregulation, including activation of anti-apoptotic factors (i.e., Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, etc) or inactivation of pro-apoptotic factors (i.e., p53 pathway) ends up in cancer cell resistance to therapies. In addition, therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating apoptotic activity are briefly discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                2352-4820
                2352-3042
                08 August 2020
                March 2022
                08 August 2020
                : 9
                : 2
                : 466-478
                Affiliations
                [a ]School of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, PR China
                [b ]Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400042, PR China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. School of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Yixueyuan Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400016, PR China. luojinyong888@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                S2352-3042(20)30097-0
                10.1016/j.gendis.2020.07.014
                8843874
                35224161
                3b29f4be-6ff5-47a6-a322-46d3c384b485
                © 2020 Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 27 April 2020
                : 17 July 2020
                : 31 July 2020
                Categories
                Full Length Article

                alantolactone,erk1/2,jnk,mitogen activated protein kinases,osteosarcoma,p38,wnt/β-catenin

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