Liver cancer is one of the most aggressive malignant tumors. It is significant to understand the molecular mechanism of liver cancer cells to develop new treatment plans. Studies have identified that FBP1 serves as a cancer inhibitor gene. To research the effect mechanism of FBP1 in liver cancer cells, bioinformatics analysis was performed to study its expression in liver cancer tissue. Survival analysis was also performed. Moreover, starBase database was applied to predict upstream regulatory genes of FBP1. Dual-luciferase assay was performed to testify their targeted relationship. The mRNA and protein expression levels of FBP1 in liver cancer cells were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Cell viability was analyzed by CCK-8 assay. The migratory and invasive abilities of cells were analyzed by Transwell assay. The apoptosis of liver cancer cells was detected by flow cytometry. The results showed that the expression of FBP1 was downregulated in liver cancer tissue and cells. FBP1 low expression was correlated with the poor prognosis of patients. miR-18a-5p could inhibit FBP1 expression. Overexpression of FBP1 could inhibit the progression of liver cancer cells and promote cell apoptosis. Overexpressing miR-18a-5p could promote the progression of liver cancer cells and inhibit cell apoptosis. However, overexpressing FBP1 simultaneously could reverse the effect. miR-18a-5p and FBP1 are expected to be candidates for liver cancer treatment.