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      Mesenteric lymph diversion abrogates 5-lipoxygenase activation in the kidney following trauma and hemorrhagic shock :

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          Acute renal failure in critically ill patients: a multinational, multicenter study.

          Although acute renal failure (ARF) is believed to be common in the setting of critical illness and is associated with a high risk of death, little is known about its epidemiology and outcome or how these vary in different regions of the world. To determine the period prevalence of ARF in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in multiple countries; to characterize differences in etiology, illness severity, and clinical practice; and to determine the impact of these differences on patient outcomes. Prospective observational study of ICU patients who either were treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT) or fulfilled at least 1 of the predefined criteria for ARF from September 2000 to December 2001 at 54 hospitals in 23 countries. Occurrence of ARF, factors contributing to etiology, illness severity, treatment, need for renal support after hospital discharge, and hospital mortality. Of 29 269 critically ill patients admitted during the study period, 1738 (5.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5%-6.0%) had ARF during their ICU stay, including 1260 who were treated with RRT. The most common contributing factor to ARF was septic shock (47.5%; 95% CI, 45.2%-49.5%). Approximately 30% of patients had preadmission renal dysfunction. Overall hospital mortality was 60.3% (95% CI, 58.0%-62.6%). Dialysis dependence at hospital discharge was 13.8% (95% CI, 11.2%-16.3%) for survivors. Independent risk factors for hospital mortality included use of vasopressors (odds ratio [OR], 1.95; 95% CI, 1.50-2.55; P<.001), mechanical ventilation (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.58-2.82; P<.001), septic shock (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.03-1.79; P = .03), cardiogenic shock (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05-1.90; P = .02), and hepatorenal syndrome (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.07-3.28; P = .03). In this multinational study, the period prevalence of ARF requiring RRT in the ICU was between 5% and 6% and was associated with a high hospital mortality rate.
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            Identification of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a novel early urinary biomarker for ischemic renal injury.

            Acute renal failure (ARF) secondary to ischemic injury remains a common and potentially devastating problem. A transcriptome-wide interrogation strategy was used to identify renal genes that are induced very early after renal ischemia, whose protein products might serve as novel biomarkers for ARF. Seven genes that are upregulated >10-fold were identified, one of which (Cyr61) has recently been reported to be induced after renal ischemia. Unexpectedly, the induction of the other six transcripts was novel to the ARF field. In this study, one of these previously unrecognized genes was further characterized, namely neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), because it is a small secreted polypeptide that is protease resistant and consequently might be readily detected in the urine. The marked upregulation of NGAL mRNA and protein levels in the early postischemic mouse kidney was confirmed. NGAL protein expression was detected predominantly in proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive proximal tubule cells, in a punctate cytoplasmic distribution that co-localized with markers of late endosomes. NGAL was easily detected in the urine in the very first urine output after ischemia in both mouse and rat models of ARF. The appearance of NGAL in the urine was related to the dose and duration of renal ischemia and preceded the appearance of other urinary markers such as N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and beta2-microglobulin. The origin of NGAL from tubule cells was confirmed in cultured human proximal tubule cells subjected to in vitro ischemic injury, where NGAL mRNA was rapidly induced in the cells and NGAL protein was readily detectable in the culture medium within 1 h of mild ATP depletion. NGAL was also easily detectable in the urine of mice with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, again preceding the appearance of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and beta2-microglobulin. The results indicate that NGAL may represent an early, sensitive, noninvasive urinary biomarker for ischemic and nephrotoxic renal injury.
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              Long-range resonance energy transfer in molecular systems.

               D Scholes (2002)
              The current state of understanding of molecular resonance energy transfer (RET) and recent developments in the field are reviewed. The development of more general theoretical approaches has uncovered some new principles underlying RET processes. This review brings many of these important new concepts together into a generalization of Förster's original theory. The conclusions of studies investigating the various approximations in Förster theory are summarized. Areas of present and future activity are discussed. The review covers Förster theory for donor-acceptor pairs and electronic coupling for singlet-singlet, triplet-triplet, and superexchange-mediated energy transfer. This includes the transition density picture of Coulombic coupling as well as electronic coupling between molecular aggregates (excitons). Spectral overlaps and ensemble energy transfer rates in disordered aggregates, the role of dielectric properties of the medium, weak versus strong coupling, and new models for energy transfer in complex molecular assemblies are also described.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
                Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                2163-0755
                2014
                May 2014
                : 76
                : 5
                : 1214-1221
                10.1097/TA.0000000000000231
                © 2014

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