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      Genomic prediction for fusiform rust disease incidence in a large cloned population of Pinus taeda


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          In this study, 723 Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) clonal varieties genotyped with 16920 SNP markers were used to evaluate genomic selection for fusiform rust disease caused by the fungus Cronartium quercuum f. sp . fusiforme. The 723 clonal varieties were from five full-sib families. They were a subset of a larger population (1831 clonal varieties), field-tested across 26 locations in the southeast US. Ridge regression, Bayes B, and Bayes Cπ models were implemented to study marker-trait associations and estimate predictive ability for selection. A cross-validation scenario based on a random sampling of 80% of the clonal varieties for the model building had higher (0.71–0.76) prediction accuracies of genomic estimated breeding values compared with family and within-family cross-validation scenarios. Random sampling within families for model training to predict genomic estimated breeding values of the remaining progenies within each family produced accuracies between 0.38 and 0.66. Using four families out of five for model training was not successful. The results showed the importance of genetic relatedness between the training and validation sets. Bayesian whole-genome regression models detected three QTL with large effects on the disease outcome, explaining 54% of the genetic variation in the trait. The significance of QTL was validated with GWAS while accounting for the population structure and polygenic effect. The odds of disease incidence for heterozygous AB genotypes were 10.7 and 12.1 times greater than the homozygous AA genotypes for SNP11965 and SNP6347 loci, respectively. Genomic selection for fusiform rust disease incidence could be effective in P. taeda breeding. Markers with large effects could be fit as fixed covariates to increase the prediction accuracies, provided that their effects are validated further.

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          Regression Shrinkage and Selection Via the Lasso

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            Efficient methods to compute genomic predictions.

            P VanRaden (2008)
            Efficient methods for processing genomic data were developed to increase reliability of estimated breeding values and to estimate thousands of marker effects simultaneously. Algorithms were derived and computer programs tested with simulated data for 2,967 bulls and 50,000 markers distributed randomly across 30 chromosomes. Estimation of genomic inbreeding coefficients required accurate estimates of allele frequencies in the base population. Linear model predictions of breeding values were computed by 3 equivalent methods: 1) iteration for individual allele effects followed by summation across loci to obtain estimated breeding values, 2) selection index including a genomic relationship matrix, and 3) mixed model equations including the inverse of genomic relationships. A blend of first- and second-order Jacobi iteration using 2 separate relaxation factors converged well for allele frequencies and effects. Reliability of predicted net merit for young bulls was 63% compared with 32% using the traditional relationship matrix. Nonlinear predictions were also computed using iteration on data and nonlinear regression on marker deviations; an additional (about 3%) gain in reliability for young bulls increased average reliability to 66%. Computing times increased linearly with number of genotypes. Estimation of allele frequencies required 2 processor days, and genomic predictions required <1 d per trait, and traits were processed in parallel. Information from genotyping was equivalent to about 20 daughters with phenotypic records. Actual gains may differ because the simulation did not account for linkage disequilibrium in the base population or selection in subsequent generations.
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              Generalized Linear Models


                Author and article information

                G3 (Bethesda)
                G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics
                Oxford University Press
                September 2021
                22 July 2021
                22 July 2021
                : 11
                : 9
                : jkab235
                [1 ] Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University , Raleigh, NC 27695-8002, USA
                [2 ] ArborGen Inc ., Ridgeville, SC 29472, USA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Email: fisik@ 123456ncsu.edu
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Genetics Society of America.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 30 June 2021
                : 04 May 2021
                Page count
                Pages: 10

                genomic selection,cloning,categorical traits,loblolly pine,genetic relatedness,bayesian whole genome regression,snp markers,cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme


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